Chapter 16 Earth and Moon Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 16 Earth and Moon Deck (29):
1

Define time and describe location on the surface
Causes season

Earth’s Movement

2

Yearly revolution about the sun
Daily rotation about its axis
Clockwise wobble of its rotation axis

Motion of Earth

3

Not circular
2.5 million km closer in January
2.5 million km more distant in July
Earth receive about 6% more solar energy in January

Elliptical orbit

4

Earth’s rotation axis inclined at...

23.5 degrees

5

Line on celestial sphere above earth’s equator

Celestial Equator

6

Pendulum oscillates in fixed direction
Orientation changes as earth rotates

Foucault pendulum

7

Deflection of path as earth rotates beneath moving objects

Coriolis effect

8

Changes direction of rotation axis on celestial sphere
Reaction of earth to gravitation pull on its equatorial bulge by the moon and sun

Precession

9

Intersection of two straight lines
Won’t work for earth’s curved surface


Identifying place

Position on flat surface

10

Intersection of parallels and meridians defined with respect to rotation axis
Parallels: Latitude
Meridians: longitude


Identifying place

Position on earth

11

Time standards depend on measuring...

Intervals between evenly spaced periodic events

12

Viewed from above North Pole
Earth revolves counterclockwise about the sun and rotates in the same direction
Sun rises in the east and sets in the West

Earth_Sun Motion ( daily time)

13

Time at which the sun is at the celestial meridian

“Noon”

14

Given by position of sun in the sky
Can be measures with gnomon or sundial

Apparent local star

15

Time averaged from apparent solar time

Mean solar time

16

Interval Between two consecutive crossings of celestial Meridian by a particular store
Little variation because of earth’s constant rotational rate

Sidereal Day

17

Interval between two consecutive crossings of the celestial Meridian by the sun
About 4 minutes longer than sidereal day

Apparent solar day

18

360 degrees of longitude divided into 24 15 degree zones

Standard time zones

19

Clocks sit in the hate in spring and back in the fall for one extra hour of sunlight during summer evenings

Daylight saving time

20

The 180° meridian
Designated to correlate days with 24 hour time zones

International dateline

21

Intocable between two consecutive spring equinox

Tropical year

22

About 20 minutes longer than the tropical year

Sidereal year

23

Orbital time measured with respect to the stars
27 1/3 days

Sidereal month

24

Time interval between two consecutive phases
29 1/2 days

Synodic month

25

Characterized by craters lunar highlands and Maria
Subject of 12 Apollo missions
380,000 km distant

The moon

26

Origin stage formed from material eject it from a collision of a large object with her

Stage 1

27

Molten surface stage molten surface 100 km deep to hundred million years after formation
Heating from Solar System debris impacts

Stage 2

28

Molten interior stage
Accumulated heat from radioactive decay
Began 3.8 million years ago

Stage 3

29

Cold and quiet stage
Cypress scared by micrometeorites in meteorites

Stage 4