Chapter 18: Pathology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 18: Pathology Deck (28):
1

hyperthyroidism

overactivity of the thyroid gland; thyrotoxicosis

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hypothyroidism

underactivity of the thyroid gland

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exophthalmos

protrusion of the eyeballs, or proptosis

4

myxedema

advanced hypothyroidism in adulthood

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cretinism

extreme hypotbyroidism during infancy and childhood

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thyroid carcinoma

cancer of the thyroid gland

7

hyperparathyroidism

excessive production of parathormone

8

hypoparathyroidism

deficient production of parathyroid hormone

9

adrenal virilism

excessive secretion of adrenal androgens

10

Cushing syndrome

group of signs and symptoms produced by excess cortisol from the adrenal cortex

11

Addison disease

hypofuctioning of the adrenal cortex

12

pheochromocytoma

benign tumour of the adrenal medulla; tumour cells stain a dark or dusky colour

13

hyperinsulinism

excess secretion of insulin causing hypoglycemia

14

diabetes mellitus

lack of insulin secretion or resistance of insulin in promoting sugar, starch, and fat metabolism in cells

15

acromegaly

hypersecretion of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary after puberty, leading to enlargement of extremities

16

gigantism

hypersecretion of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary before puberty, leading to abnormal overgrowth of body tissues

17

dwarfism

congenital hyposecretion of growth hormone; hypopituitary dwarfism

18

panhypopituitarism

deficiency of all pituitary hormones

19

syndrome of inappropriate ADH (SIADH)

excessive secretion of antidiuretic hormone

20

diabetes insipidus

insufficient secretion of antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin)

21

fasting plasma glucose (FPG)

also known as fasting blood sugar test. measures circulating glucose level in a patient who has fasted at least 8 hours

22

serum and urine tests

measurement of hormones, electrolyts, glucose, and other substances in serum (blood) and urine as indicators of endocrine function

23

thyroid function tests

measurement of T3, T4, and TSH in the bloodstream

24

exophthalmometry

measurement of eyeball protrusion with an exophthalmometer

25

computed tomography (CT) scan

x-ray imaging of endocrine glands in cross section and other views, to assess size and infiltration by tumour

26

magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

magnetic waves produce images of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland to locate abnormalities

27

thyroid scan

scanner detects radioactivity and visualizes the thyroid gland

28

ultrasound examination

sound waves show images of endocrine organs

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