Chapter 2 - 1607-1700: Colonial America Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2 - 1607-1700: Colonial America Deck (8)
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What were the demographics of the original 1607 Virginia colony?

Original 1607 colony had 105 males and no women; 1/3 of settlers were gentlemen and not engineers


How was Rhode Island founded?

Rhode Island was formed by the exiled Roger Williams, and Anne Hutchinson and many of her followers
joined him there a few years later. To ensure that settlers in Rhode Island would enjoy complete freedom of conscience, Williams insisted upon a separation of church and state so that religious trials could never happen. Settlers enjoyed a freedom of worship that was not present in Massachusetts. Religious dissidents, outsiders, independent thinkers, fugitives, and loners sought refuge in Rhode Island.


How was Connecticut founded?

Connecticut began in 1636-1637 when three entire church congregations left Massachusetts and moved westward. Led by Thomas Hooker, a prominent Puritan pastor in the Massachusetts town of Newtown (which was later renamed Cambridge) and John Winthrop, Jr. (the son of Massachusetts’ first governor, John Winthrop), the settlers sought to extend the right to vote to all male worshipers and claim additional arable land. They drove their livestock before them as they traveled, eventually settling near present-day Hartford. In response to the threat of Pequot Indian attacks, they organized Connecticut into a self-governing colony. The settlers created a document – the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut – that some regard as the world’s first written constitution. The colony was not officially recognized by the crown until 1662, at which time the Connecticut Charter replaced the Fundamental Orders.


How was New Hampshire founded?

New Hampshire was settled by fishermen in 1623, their small number augmented by some Anne Hutchinson followers in 1638. New Hampshire was a part of Massachusetts until becoming independent in the 1670s. For most of the 1600s, only the extreme southeastern corner of New Hampshire was settled. Portsmouth, Dover, and Exeter – its largest towns – were all within twenty miles of the Atlantic coast. The small colony was home to only about 6,000 residents in 1700.


How was Maine founded?

Maine was the northern extension of the Massachusetts colony and not an independent colony. Its colonial population was smaller than that of New Hampshire. Maine attempted to secede from Massachusetts in 1807 but the Massachusetts State Assembly voted against it. Then the Assembly reversed itself in 1819, permitting the secession. Maine joined the Union as a state in 1820.


What factors contributed to exodus from Massachusetts?

Religious tolerance, and land for expanding families.


Describe the relationship between colonists and NAs during and after the exodus from MA.

Clashes over land became frequent. A 1633 smallpox epidemic killed many Indians, delaying clashes, but in 1637, the Pequot War broke out after settlers pushed into the fertile river valley lands. Pequot attacked and killed many colonists, so the settlers allied with the Narrangansetts and Mohegans. CT settlers and allies decimated the Pequot; one battle killed at least 600, likely more than half the tribe. Violence continued, up through King Philip's war in 1675-1676. Philip frequently attacked on Sundays, and came within 20 miles of Boston. Roughly 4k Indians and 2k colonists died. These two wars were generally the exception to the rule; Virginia suffered much more violence.


How was Maryland founded?

Maryland was founded as a refuge for English Roman Catholics. Lord Baltimore owned the colony, tried to create an entirely Catholic colony, realized he needed a working class, opened the gates to Protestants, and thus created a two-tier wealth separation between