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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (38):
1

Response Outcome Measures

Chronometry
Performance Errors

2

Chronometry

Timing/Duration of movements
-Reaction time
Simple Rt
Choice Rt
Discrimination Rt

3

Reaction Time

Time interval between onset of stimulus and initiation of response

4

Simple RT

One stimulus and one possible response

5

Choice RT

Multiple stimuli and multiple possible responses

6

Discrimination RT

Multiple possible stimuli, multiple possible responses, with only a single correct response (Go/No Go)

7

Fractionated Reaction Time

Using electromyography, RT can be fractionated into pre-motor and motor components

8

Pre-Motor Time

Fractionated
Reflects time required to develop the plan of action and send it to the musculature involved (cognitive)

9

Motor Time

Fractionated
Represents the mechanical processes associated with the action (mechanical)

10

Variables Influencing RT

Number of response choices
Complexity of the response
Accuracy demands
Amount of practice
Alcohol and RT

11

Number of response choices

increase # of response choices = increase RT

12

Complexity of the response

Number of components
Increased complexity = increased RT

13

Accuracy demands

Increased accuracy demands = increased RT

14

Amount of practice

Increased amount of practice = decreased RT (up to a certain point)

15

Alcohol

Increased alcohol intake = increased RT

16

Total Response Time

Time from the initiation of the stimulus until the movement (response) is completed
-Foreperiod or warning interval: time from the warning stimulus until response time

17

Movement Time

Time between the start of the movement and its completion
Effective in demonstrating speed-accuracy trade-offf

18

Fitts' Law and Movement Time

Speed-Accuracy Trade-off
The faster you move, the less accurate you are

19

Performances Errors

AE
CE
VE
E

20

Absolute Error

Overall amount of error in a performance

21

Constant Error

level of bias in a performance (considers amount and direction of error)

22

Variable Error

Measures the inconsistency in performance

23

Total Error

Provides an overall measure of performance. It is derived combination of CE and VE.

24

Performance Errors- Continuous Skills

Root-mean-square error (RMSE)

25

Performance Errors- Two dimensional Skills

Radial Error (RE)

26

Kinetics

FORCE involved in producing measurements
EMG can be used as a kinetic measure

27

Kinematics

Time, space, all the combinations
The qualities of motion without regard to force
-Displacement
-Velocity
-Acceleration
Provides insight on coordination and control

28

Angle-Angle Diagrams

Describes the intalimb coordination between segments
Obtained by plotting angular displacement of two joints

29

Phase-Plane Portraits

Illustrates how a particular joint is controlled
Obtained by plotting movement of one joint against a movement parameter

30

Electromyography

(EMG)
describes how various muscles are activated

31

Neurological Measures

Intracellular Recordings
Lesions and Ablations
Destroy Brain Sections
Brain Scanning Techniques

32

Intracellular Recordings

Invasive
Used to explore the internal operations of individual brain cells

33

Lesions and Ablations

Invasive
Invasive methods used to study changes in motor control when a neural structure is removed and/or lesioned

34

Brain Scanning Technique Definition

Used to detect abnormalities in areas of the CNS and/or study dynamic brain function

35

Brain Scanning Techniques

Positron Emission Tomography
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

36

Positron Emission Tomography

Uses positron emissions to investigate which areas of the brain are active

37

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)

Describes the movement of blood/brain fluid

38

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)

uses magnetic stimulation to identify cortical paths