Chapter 2 - American Experiments, 1521-1700 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2 - American Experiments, 1521-1700 Deck (46):
1

chattel slavery

the practice of enslaving humans and their future generations for life

2

encomienda

a grant by the Spanish crown to conquistadors that allowed them to demand tribute (in labor) and goods from Indians

3

mita

mandatory public service in the Inca Empire

4

Columbian Exchange

the movement of diseases, peoples, and goods across the Atlantic Ocean

5

King Philip II

powerful Catholic ruler of Spain who was determined to eliminate challenges to the Catholic Church

6

King Henry VIII

first English ruler to (subtly) advocate for Protestantism

7

Queen Elizabeth I

English queen who advocated for Protestantism and encouraged exploration, industry, and intellect

8

Sir Francis Drake

under Elizabeth, the first Englishman to circumnavigate the globe

9

outwork industry

industry where merchants buy supplies and send them to be manufactured by another source

10

mercantilism

state-sponsored manufacturing

11

Sir Walter Raleigh

led three expeditions to North Carolina and helped settle the Roanoke colony

12

Roanoke Island

the "lost colony" where 117 settlers were left unsupplied for several years and disappeared

13

King James I

English ruler who granted the Virginia Company land in America

14

Virginia Company

a joint-stock company that settled Jamestown

15

Jamestown

early colony in Virginia, settled by the Virginia Company

16

Powhatan

a powerful chief who intended to maintain peaceful relations with Jamestown settlers, given that they paid tribute and became a community within his chiefdom

17

John Rolfe

English colonist who married Pocahontas

18

Pocahontas

daughter of Chief Powhatan who interacted with and defended the early colonists of Virginia

19

House of Burgesses

first legislative body in the colonies; could make laws and levy taxes

20

Opechancanough

Powhatan's successor; led initial assault in the Indian War of 1622

21

royal colony

colonies ruled by a monarch-appointed governor

22

King Charles I

English ruler who was secretly sympathetic of Catholics; granted Lord Baltimore lands around Chesapeake Bay to create a refuge for Catholics

23

Lord Baltimore

founded of Maryland colony and namesake of Baltimore, Maryland

24

Toleration Act

passed by Lord Baltimore; granted Christians the right to follow their beliefs and hold church services

25

tobacco

plant native to the Americas that originally went for a high price in England and offered the colonists a source of income and reason for expansion

26

freehold

a farm of 30 to 50 acres owned and farmed by families or male partners

27

headright system

Virginian system that guaranteed 50 acres of land to anyone who paid the passage of a new immigrant to the colony

28

indentured servitude

a labor system where contracted workers were bound to their masters for a given number of years before they were free to marry and work for themselves

29

Jacques Cartier

ventured up the St. Lawrence River and claimed it for France

30

Beaver Wars

a series of Iroquois campaigns to accumulate power in their regioin

31

Pilgrims

a group of Puritans who came to Plymouth via the Mayflower

32

Puritans

Protestants who did not separate from the Church of England but hoped to purify it of its ceremony and hierarchy

33

John Winthrop

first governor of Massachusetts colony who hoped to inspire Christian reform and attracted thousands of new colonists

34

joint-stock corporation

a commercial agreement that allows investors to pool their resources

35

toleration

the willingness to accept other belief systems and practices

36

Roger Williams

Puritan minister who advocated tolerance and was banished from Massachusetts Bay to establish Rhode Island

37

Anne Hutchinson

wife of a merchant who controversially believed that God revealed divine truth to certain believers; was banished from Massachusetts Bay and settled in Rhode Island

38

Salem

location of the Salem Witch Trials, where several young girls experienced seizures and accused their neighbors of bewitching them

39

town meeting

a main institution in American local government where adult men could discuss and vote on important issues

40

Puritan-Pequot War

conflict between Puritan settlers and Pequot Indians

41

Metacom's War (King Philip's War)

war in which Indians destroyed 1/5 of English towns and killed 1,000 settlers

42

William Berkeley

powerful governor of Virginia who angered Nathaniel Bacon

43

Nathaniel Bacon

government official who led a rebel movement against Berkeley and his policies

44

neo-Europe

near-replications of European societies in the Americas

45

Mayflower Compact

agreement for self-government signed by 41 men on the Mayflower

46

Harvard University

the first university in the colonies; established to educate ministers

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