Chapter 2 & 3 week 7-22 & 7-24 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2 & 3 week 7-22 & 7-24 Deck (40):
1

What happens to the energy level as you go down the periodic table?

the energy level moves up
The higher the energy level, the lower the level on the periodic table.

2

Is the outer shell of an element the highest level or the lowest level?

highest level

3

What happens when atoms are joined together by chemical bonds?

a molecule results

4

If two or more atoms of the same element are joined together, what do we call it?

molecule of the element

5

What does the subscript in O₂ mean?

the subscript 2 represents the number of atoms in the molecule

6

What does the compound NaCl stand for?

Sodium Chloride

7

What does the compound CO₂ stand for?

Carbon dioxide

8

What is a molecule?

the smallest unit of a compound that retains the properties of that compound

9

What is an element?

cannot be divided by ordinary chemical process into another substance
- there are 112 elements - 92 occur in nature

10

What is a chemical symbol?

what each element is referred to as

11

How many times does Carbon like to bond?

4 times

12

What is a chemical bond?

it is a reaction
atoms are sharing or transferring electrons

13

What is ionization?

Ionization is when an atom or molecule gains either a positive or negative charge.
-It can occur in one of two ways: first, when electrons are either gained or lost by a particle;
-second, when one atom or molecule combines with another atom or molecule that already has a charge.

14

What is an ion?

The charged particle itself is called an ion.

15

What is a cation?

Ions that are positively charged
Example: Sodium - electrical charge is positive

16

What is an anion?

ions that are negatively charged
Example: Chloride - electrical charge is negative

17

What is an electrostatic attraction?

when two atoms are drawn to each other by their respective electrical charges

18

What is an ionic bond?

bond is formed when electrons are transferred from one atom to anther
- has to have metal in it
- high melting and high boiling point
- salt takes a lot of heat to melt it
- orbitals do not overlap
- only solid at room temperature
- electrically reactive
- soluble in water

19

What is oxidized?

When something gives up an electron

20

What are the functions that an ion is involved in, in the animal body?

contraction of muscle fibers, transmission of nerve impulses, and maintenance of water balance

21

What is an hydrogen bond?

not really an ionic bond because it is so weak - like a balloon on a wall
- weak electrostatic bond

22

When an element gains an electron (negative charge what is it called?

it is a reduction

23

What are the three types of chemical bonds?

covalent, ionic, and hydrogen bonds

24

What is a covalent bond?

the bond formed when atoms share electrons
- medium to weak bonds
- only between non-metals - ex: methane CH
- low melting point - room temperature, boiling point
- are liquid or gases at room temperature
- will not conduct electricity
- orbitals overlap

25

What is a single covalent bond?

formed when one electron is shared

26

What is a double covalent bond?

formed when two electrons are shared

27

What is a triple covalent bond?

formed when three electrons are shared

28

What is a polar molecule?

it has oppositely charged ends

29

What is a polar covalent bond?

unequal sharing of electrons
one atom has a higher electro-negativity than the other atom

30

What is chemical reactions?

chemical behavior - how it reacts when it comes into contact with another atom

31

What is catabolism (catalize)?

breaking down nutrients - coming in
- utilize the proteins (20 amino acids

32

What is anobolize (anobolism)?

the building up of - the rest goes out in waste

33

What is a reactant?

beginning substances in a reaction

34

What is a product?

ending substance in a reaction

35

What is needed for cell division?

ATP

36

Muscle fibers are ...?

multi-nucleated - many nuclei in one cell

37

Describe mitochondria

purpose is to produce a protein - manufacturing plant for protein - if we need more amino acids
- produces 95% of our energy comes from mitochondria
- Kreb cycle happens here
Acetyl COA hapens outside this organelle
ATP is produced here
- powerhouse of the cell
- contains DNA & RNA

38

How and why does mitochondria reproduce itself?

When there is a high demand of mitochondria (such as muscle), mitochondria will reproduce itself
- through fission (simply a pinching off
- they will go where they are demanded where there is a greater demand

39

What is ATP

adenosine triphosphate

40

What are ribosome and how does it make ATP's

subunits contain protein RNA, site for protein synthesis. Found in Eucaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Found on rough Endoplasmic reticulum