Flashcards in Chapter 2 & 3 week 7-22 & 7-24 Deck (40):
What happens to the energy level as you go down the periodic table?
the energy level moves up
The higher the energy level, the lower the level on the periodic table.
Is the outer shell of an element the highest level or the lowest level?
What happens when atoms are joined together by chemical bonds?
a molecule results
If two or more atoms of the same element are joined together, what do we call it?
molecule of the element
What does the subscript in O₂ mean?
the subscript 2 represents the number of atoms in the molecule
What does the compound NaCl stand for?
What does the compound CO₂ stand for?
What is a molecule?
the smallest unit of a compound that retains the properties of that compound
What is an element?
cannot be divided by ordinary chemical process into another substance
- there are 112 elements - 92 occur in nature
What is a chemical symbol?
what each element is referred to as
How many times does Carbon like to bond?
What is a chemical bond?
it is a reaction
atoms are sharing or transferring electrons
What is ionization?
Ionization is when an atom or molecule gains either a positive or negative charge.
-It can occur in one of two ways: first, when electrons are either gained or lost by a particle;
-second, when one atom or molecule combines with another atom or molecule that already has a charge.
What is an ion?
The charged particle itself is called an ion.
What is a cation?
Ions that are positively charged
Example: Sodium - electrical charge is positive
What is an anion?
ions that are negatively charged
Example: Chloride - electrical charge is negative
What is an electrostatic attraction?
when two atoms are drawn to each other by their respective electrical charges
What is an ionic bond?
bond is formed when electrons are transferred from one atom to anther
- has to have metal in it
- high melting and high boiling point
- salt takes a lot of heat to melt it
- orbitals do not overlap
- only solid at room temperature
- electrically reactive
- soluble in water
What is oxidized?
When something gives up an electron
What are the functions that an ion is involved in, in the animal body?
contraction of muscle fibers, transmission of nerve impulses, and maintenance of water balance
What is an hydrogen bond?
not really an ionic bond because it is so weak - like a balloon on a wall
- weak electrostatic bond
When an element gains an electron (negative charge what is it called?
it is a reduction
What are the three types of chemical bonds?
covalent, ionic, and hydrogen bonds
What is a covalent bond?
the bond formed when atoms share electrons
- medium to weak bonds
- only between non-metals - ex: methane CH
- low melting point - room temperature, boiling point
- are liquid or gases at room temperature
- will not conduct electricity
- orbitals overlap
What is a single covalent bond?
formed when one electron is shared
What is a double covalent bond?
formed when two electrons are shared
What is a triple covalent bond?
formed when three electrons are shared
What is a polar molecule?
it has oppositely charged ends
What is a polar covalent bond?
unequal sharing of electrons
one atom has a higher electro-negativity than the other atom
What is chemical reactions?
chemical behavior - how it reacts when it comes into contact with another atom
What is catabolism (catalize)?
breaking down nutrients - coming in
- utilize the proteins (20 amino acids
What is anobolize (anobolism)?
the building up of - the rest goes out in waste
What is a reactant?
beginning substances in a reaction
What is a product?
ending substance in a reaction
What is needed for cell division?
Muscle fibers are ...?
multi-nucleated - many nuclei in one cell
purpose is to produce a protein - manufacturing plant for protein - if we need more amino acids
- produces 95% of our energy comes from mitochondria
- Kreb cycle happens here
Acetyl COA hapens outside this organelle
ATP is produced here
- powerhouse of the cell
- contains DNA & RNA
How and why does mitochondria reproduce itself?
When there is a high demand of mitochondria (such as muscle), mitochondria will reproduce itself
- through fission (simply a pinching off
- they will go where they are demanded where there is a greater demand
What is ATP