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Flashcards in protein synthesis Deck (21):
1

What is mRNA?

copies the information in the DNA molecule

2

What is transcription?

The process of making mRNA

3

What is transfer tRNA?

carries the information out of the nucleus

4

What is translation?

Process of building new protein using the information on the mRNA molecules
- this is translation because information is translated from one language (nucleotides) into another (amino acids)

5

The type of protein made is determined by....?

the function of the cell

6

What is the genetic code?

The sequence of three intravenous bases that represent one amino acid

7

What is a gene?

submits of DNA molecules

8

What is a promotor?

the start signals

9

What are terminators?

stop signals

10

What are transcription?

the formation of mRNA in the nucleus

11

What is RNA polymerase?

during transcription, this special enzyme binds to a DNA molecule and coordinates bonding between DNA nitrogenous bases and circulating nucleotides

12

What are introns?

DNA noninformational or "nonsense" triplets

13

What are exons?

informational triplets

14

What are spliceosomes?

special RNA-protein complexes found in the nucleus form assembly lines

15

What is called small ribonucleoproteins?

complexes that cut out the introns and splice together the exons in the order in which they occur in the DNA gene

16

What is ribosomal RNA?

uses information from the messenger RNA to create the proteins needed by the body

17

When does protein synthesis begin?

when the two ribosomal units (the interwoven protein and rRNA molecules) interlock around the initial codon of an mRNA strand

18

What are ribosomes composed of?

they are composed of protein and a second type of RNA called ribosomal RNA (rRNA)

19

Where does protein synthesis begin?

in the nucleus - where the instructions for building proteins are contained within DNA

20

Does DNA leave the nucleus?

No

21

Where are amino acids assembled?

in the cytoplasm