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Bioenergetics

the processes of transferring energy from consumed foods throughout the body, supplying the contracting muscles with usable energy called adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

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adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

This energy, or fuel, drives the body to operate. ATP is necessary for all energy- requiring processes in cells. All muscle cells contain a small amount of ATP at all times, but that ATP is consumed almost immediately after exercise starts.

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The Phosphagen System

the body’s energy system that uses immediate stored energy inside the muscle cell. This energy system is composed of ATP and phosphocreatine (PCr). Phosphocreatine and ATP are stored inside the muscles cells. Phosphocreatine is used for all- out effort and explosive power exercises like sprinting and weightlifting . The phosphocreatine system can sustain physical activity for no more than 30 seconds.

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The Nonoxidative System

sometimes called the lactic acid or glycolytic system, is the body’s short- term energy system. It allows ATP and phosphocreatine to be resynthesized at a rapid rate. This system is sometimes referred to as the anaerobic (without oxygen) pathway, because oxygen is not required for ATP production. Instead, this system uses carbohydrates (glucose and glycogen) for ATP production. The nonoxidative system is sometimes referred to as the lactic acid system , because lactic acid is produced when carbohydrates are broken down without the use of oxygen. Lactic acid, or lactate, accumulates in the muscles and contributes to muscle fatigue. The nonoxidative system is used for physical activities that require high- intensity effort. It provides energy to the working muscles during activities which last from 30 seconds to 3 minutes. These activities can be anything from running up the stairs to passing another participant in a race.

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The Oxidative System

the body’s long- term energy system. It breaks down carbohydrates (glucose and glycogen) and fats (lipids) from the foods in order to synthesize ATP. In this energy system, a very limited extent of proteins can be broken down into glucose as well, but proteins are not a preferred fuel source. This system is also called the aerobic (with oxygen) pathway, because oxygen is required for this system to proceed. This system produces a large amount of ATP, unlike the Phosphagen system and the nonoxidative system. The oxidative system’s metabolic by- products are water and carbon dioxide. (Remember, the nonoxidative system’s by- product: lactic acid.) Unlike lactic acid, water and carbon dioxide do not cause the muscle to fatigue. The oxidative system produces energy for those physical activities that last more than 3 minutes; as well as those activities where intensity is limited, like running a marathon or hiking.

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anaerobic or lactate threshold

cooperation between the oxidative and nonoxidative systems

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Blood

Blood has many functions, but its most important job is the transport of oxygen to working muscles, tissues, and organs.

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Plasma

the fluid part of the blood. Its main component is water (90 – 93%), but it also contains some proteins, electrolytes, gases, nutrients, waste products, and various hormones. While plasma carries a small amount of oxygen, most of the body’s oxygen is delivered through the cells of the blood.

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Erythrocytes

are red blood cells, and they contain a protein called hemoglobin . These are the most abundant types of cells in blood, accounting for more than 99% of the blood’s cells. Oxygen is bound to hemoglobin for transportation; hemoglobin also carries some of the carbon dioxide (30%) in the body.

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hematocrit

is a blood test that measures the amount of erythrocytes within the blood. The hematocrit levels are slightly higher in men than in woman, due to higher testosterone levels.

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Leukocytes

are white blood cells. They are the body’s defense system, working to destroy any potentially infectious agents that enter the body.

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Platelets

are made up of many other parts of cells. They go wherever there is damage to the wall of a blood vessel to stop blood loss. If a body part is cut, platelets rush to the scene to clot the blood so that a person would not bleed out.

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The Effects of Exercise on Blood Hyperemia

is the increased amount of blood flow to the working muscles of the body. As exercise increases, so too does the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the muscles. This in turn increases the removal of waste products such as lactate and carbon dioxide.

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Cardiovascular drift

occurs when prolonged endurance exercise increases body temperature. To prevent overheating, plasma is moved from the blood vessels into the surrounding tissue. This provides the body with more water for sweating, which cools down the body. This drift can cause increased heart rate, because it decreases the total volume of blood and decreases the stroke volume.

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hemoconcentration

In turn, the movement of plasma out of the blood leads to hemoconcentration – a decrease of fluids within the blood – which makes sense, since plasma is the fluid part of the blood. Hemoconcentration can lead to elevations in hematocrit and hemoglobin values.

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pulmonary System

is divided into the upper and lower respiratory tracks. The upper respiratory track consists of the nose, the pharynx (throat), and larynx (voice box). The lower respiratory track consists of the trachea (wind pipe), lungs, bronchi, bronchioles (passage ways into the alveoli), and the alveoli (air sacs).

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pleural membrane

The pleural membrane helps separate the two lungs from each other.

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apex

the top of each lung, extends into the base of the neck above the first rib. Each lung has a base as well, which rests on the diaphragm.

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The diaphragm

is a respiratory muscle that allows us to breath. It is dome- shaped, and it separates the abdominal cavity (stomach) from the thoracic cavity (chest). This muscle contracts and relaxes as we breathe.

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alveoli

air sacs that exchange gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) between our lungs and the blood.

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Inhalation

causes the diaphragm to move downward; the intercostal muscles (muscles between the ribs) then pull the ribcage up, therefore enlarging the thoracic (chest) cavity.

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Exhalation

causes the diaphragm to move upward. Now the intercostal muscles relax, causing less pressure inside the thoracic cavity. However, there is an increased pressure inside the lungs, which causes air to be expelled through the nose and mouth.

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Trachea

Another name for the trachea is the wind pipe. It is made up of C- shaped cartilage rings that serve three important functions:
1. The C- shaped cartilage rings offer support for the trachea. They support, protect, and maintain an open airway.
2. The tough cartilage prevents overexpansion of the respiratory system.
3. The trachea lies anterior to the esophagus; it supports the esophagus, and allows for large amounts of food to pass down into the stomach by collapsing slightly.

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carotid artery

is divided into the left and right carotid, and lies on each side of the neck. It runs along the side of the trachea (windpipe) and below the mandible (jaw bone). To assess the carotid pulse, place index and middle finger below the jaw and the side of the neck. Hold fingers together and press gently; move fingers around until pulse is felt. Count the number of times the pulse is felt in 10 seconds using a second hand watch. Multiply this number by six to find the amount of heart beats in one minute.

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radial artery

branches off the brachial artery (major blood vessel of the upper arm) and runs towards the thumb along the forearm. To assess pulse, place index and middle finger together and press gently on the thumb side of the wrist until pulse is felt. If no pulse is felt, move fingers around until pulse is felt. Count the number of times the pulse is felt in 10 seconds, and multiply that by six to find the amount of heart beats in one minute.

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Cardiovascular System

consists of the heart, as well as two networks of blood vessels called the pulmonary and systemic circulatory systems.

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Pulmonary Circulation

The part of the cardiovascular system that works with the lungs. The right atrium in the heart receives oxygen- depleted blood from the body. The heart then pumps oxygen- depleted blood into the lungs to be re- oxygenated. The left atrium receives that oxygenated blood from the lungs.

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Systemic Circulation

The part of the cardiovascular system that circulates blood to all parts of the body, except for the lungs. It transports oxygenated blood away from the heart and carries oxygen- depleted blood back towards the heart.

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Anatomy of the Heart

The heart is a very complex system made up of four chambers, four valves, and multiple blood vessels.

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four chambers of heart

the right atria, the left atria, the right ventricle, and the left ventricle.

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Inside the ventricles are the four valves:

1. Tricuspid Valve : Located between the right atrium and the right ventricle.
2. Bicuspid (mitral) Valve : Located between the left atrium and left ventricle.
3. Pulmonic Valve : Located between the right ventricle and pulmonary artery.
4. Aortic Valve : Located between the left ventricle and the aorta.

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Arteries

are large blood vessels. They carry oxygenated blood away from the heart. To remember this, associate the “a” in “artery” with the “away.” ( A rteries carry blood a way from the heart.) Arteries branch into smaller arteries called arterioles , which in turn branch off to form capillaries .

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capillaries

Capillaries are extremely small, and they allow for the exchange of nutrients and gases within the tissue. As these exchanges take place, several capillaries will join to form venules .

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venules

return oxygen- depleted blood back towards heart.

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Veins

A number of venules form the larger blood vessels called veins . Veins create more pressure inside the blood vessel, which helps return oxygen- depleted blood back to the heart.

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The Cardiac Cycle

The cardiac cycle makes up the pumping action of the heart, and is the sequence of events which lead up to the contraction of the heart.

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Systole

The contraction of the heart muscle (the myocardium) is called systole.

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Diastole

When the heart muscle relaxes, it is called diastole

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Stroke volume (SV)

is the volume of blood being ejected from the left ventricle on every contraction. The stroke volume at rest is usually 70 ml .

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Heart rate

is the number of times a heart beats per minute. When the body is at rest, heart rate can be about 72 beats per minute .

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Cardiac output (Q)

is the amount of blood that is ejected from the left ventricle every minute. Heart rate and stroke volume produces cardiac output: Q = HR * SV Cardiac output at rest is usually about 5 L per minute .

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End- diastolic volume (EDV)

is the amount of blood left in each ventricle after the heart muscle relaxes (diastole) during the cardiac cycle.

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End- systolic volume (ESV)

is the amount of blood left in each ventricle after the heart contracts. ESV at rest equals about 55 ml of blood.

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Ejection fraction (EF)

is the percentage of blood in the ventricle when the heart is in a relaxation (diastolic) state; but this blood actually gets pumped out during the contraction (systolic) phase.

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The Frank- Starling Law

states that the amount of blood left in each ventricle after the heart muscle relaxes (EDV) will significantly affect the SV; this is because a large amount of blood left in each ventricle after every contraction creates a greater stretch on the heart muscle. Over time, as the ventricle stretch increases, contractile force increases. A normal EDV would be around 125 ml.

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Pulmonary Function

Minute ventilation (VE) is the volume of air inhaled or exhaled in one minute. At rest, minute ventilation is about 6 L/min . Exercise increases minute ventilation , because breathing depth increases during physical activity. Exercise also increases respiratory rate , evidenced by the increased number of breaths required as activity grows more intense. During maximal intensity exercise, minute ventilation may be 20 – 25 times higher than the typical 6 L/min that is seen at rest. This increase also causes tidal volume to increase.

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Tidal volume

is the amount of air entering or leaving the lungs in a single breath. The air that enters and leaves the lungs in a single breath is usually around 0.5 L to 4 L .

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Respiratory rate

is the amount of breaths taken in one minute. Respiratory rate ranges from 12 breaths per minute to almost 50 breaths per minute, depending on exercise intensity.

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Cardiac Function

Two major modifications during exercise work to increase oxygen delivery to the working muscle tissue. They are shunting and vasodilation. 1. Shunting is a term used when blood is shunted away from all the vital (visceral) organs of the body to the exercising muscles. As exercise increases, vasoconstriction (narrowing of the blood vessels) takes place in the arterioles within the visceral organs; at the same time, vasodilation (widening of the blood vessels ) takes place in the blood vessels (arterioles) in the muscle. This shunting causes a higher blood – and therefore increased oxygen – delivery to the working muscles, as well as less blood and oxygen from the visceral organs. 2. As aerobic exercise increases, so too will the vasodilation of the blood vessels in the working muscle. Vasodilation causes the total peripheral resistance (resistance of blood vessels to the flow of blood) to decrease. This accommodates the rise in cardiac output that occurs during exercise.

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Axial Skeleton

This skeleton includes all of the bones of the skull, vertebral column, ribs, and sternum. It supports and protects all of the internal organs.

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Spine

The spine, or the vertebral column, provides the support of the skeletal structure. The human spine contains 33 vertebrae: seven cervical, twelve thoracic, five lumbar, five sacral, and four coccygeal (these bones are fused together to form one bone: the coccyx) vertebrae. Between each vertebra are intervertebral disks. These disks are flat and round, and are composed of fibrocartilaginous tissue.

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Fibrocartilaginous Tissue

This tissue is strong and tough, but it allows for slight movement. Fibrocartilaginous tissue is composed of the annulus fibrosus which is the outer portion of the disk. The nucleus pulposus is a jelly- like substance in the middle of each disk that allows the vertebrae to absorb shock and bear weight.

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sternum

also called the breast bone, lies in the middle of the chest. It has three parts: the manubrium (superior), the body (middle), and the xiphoid process (inferior). The connection between the sternum and the ribs forms the ribcage, which serves as protection for the heart and lungs.

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The Appendicular Skeleton

consists of all the bones making up the arms, legs, pelvis, and pelvic girdle. This skeletal structure provides both movement and support. The scapula and clavicles attach the limbs to the trunk of the body. The bones in the arms include the humerus, ulna, and radial bones. The glenoid fossa of the scapula attaches to the humerus, which in turn attaches to the ulna and radial bones that make up the forearm.

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Muscles

There are three types of muscles:
1. Skeletal.
2. Cardiac.
3. Smooth. (Found in many parts of the body, including the blood vessels, the gastrointestinal tract, the bladder, and the uterus.)

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Muscle tissue

There are three different types of muscle tissue. 1. Skeletal Muscle is the most abundant tissue found in the human body, which accounts for 50% of the body’s mass. Skeletal muscle’s prime job is to provide contraction and relaxation to the muscle for movement, whether someone is getting out of bed, or bench pressing 150lbs. When you think of skeletal muscle think of the body’s skeletal structure and these are the muscles that attach to it. 2. Striated muscle is also another term for skeletal muscle because of the striations you can see if looking at this muscle under a microscope that are made from the long and thin multinucleated fibers that are crossed with a regular pattern of fine red and white lines. 3. Tendons are what attach skeletal muscle to bones. If you think of bones as levers, the skeletal muscle is attached to the bones by tendons which give the body the ability for movement and mobility.

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Repetition

During an exercise, a repetition is made up of three distinct phases:  Concentric phase (typically when you are lifting the weight).  Transition or peak contraction phase (mid- point).  Eccentric phase (typically when you are lowering the weight). Remember the two phases of muscle movement, concentric and eccentric? The muscle shortens during the concentric part, and lengthens during the eccentric part.

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Calcium

is like a messenger. Once calcium is inside the cytosol, it looks for troponin and binds to it. When calcium is bonded to the regulatory filament troponin it causes the other regulatory filament, tropomyosin, to change shape.

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cross- bridge cycling

the production of movement and the generation of force by muscle cells.

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Muscle Fibers

There are three types of muscle fibers in the human body: Type I fibers, Type IIB, and Type IIA fibers ; each type of fiber serves a purpose, from holding our head up to sprinting around a track.

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Type I fibers

are slow twitch fibers ; these fibers are most resistant to fatigue. They produce large amounts of ATP through the oxidative system. Type I fibers are developed through training and genetics. They are found in postural muscles, such as the neck and spine; they are also found in large amounts in marathon runners.

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Type IIB fibers

are fast twitch fibers ; these fibers can produce bursts of power, but they fatigue quickly. ATP produced in the nonoxidative system is broken down rapidly in these fibers. These fibers are found in large amounts in sprinters.

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Type IIA fibers

are a combination of Type I and Type II fibers. ATP is produced in both the aerobic and anaerobic systems; Type IIA fibers can produce fast and strong muscle contractions. Even though these fibers are a combination of both Type I and Type II, they are still more prone to fatigue than Type I. Resistance training can turn Type IIB fibers into Type IIA fibers.

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Two opposing muscle groups

An agonist is a prime mover that moves part of the body in one direction. Antagonists are the prime movers that move that body part it in the opposite direction. Muscles never work alone; when the agonist muscle is contracting the antagonist to that muscle is relaxing.

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Concentric

contractions are when the muscle shortens when contracting. (Example: The upward phase of a bicep curl.)

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Eccentric

contractions are when the muscle lengthens when contracting. (Example: The downward phase of a bicep curl.)

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Isometric

contractions occur when the muscle is neither shortening nor lengthening. (Example: Curling a dumbbell half way up and holding it in fixed position.)

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Body planes and axes

There are three body planes, referred to as the cardinal planes:
1. Sagittal : Vertical plane. Divides the body into left and right sides.
2. Transverse : Horizontal plane. Divides the body into upper (superior) and lower (inferior) portions.
3. Frontal (Coronal) : Vertical plane. Divides the body into front (anterior) and back (posterior) portions.

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Axis

is a straight line around which an object rotates. Movement at the joint takes place in a plane about an axis. There are three axes of rotation:
1. Mediolateral axis lies perpendicular to the sagittal plane.
2. Anteroposterior axis lies perpendicular to the frontal plane.
3. Longitudinal axis lies perpendicular to the transverse plane.

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Body planes

sagittal plane allows flexion and extension movement. It rotates around the mediolateral axis. Some examples of this kind of movement would be walking or squatting.

The frontal plane allows for abduction/adduction, side flexion, and inversion/eversion. It rotates around the anteroposterior axis. Side bending and lateral arm lefts are examples of this kind of movement.

The transverse plane allows internal and external rotation, horizontal flexion and extension, and supination and pronation. It rotates around the longitudinal axis. This movement allows for activities such as throwing a baseball or performing a golf swing.

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Anatomical Directions

Proximal : Nearest to the body center.
Distal : Away from the body center.
Superior (cranial): Towards the head.
Inferior (caudal): Towards the feet.
Anterior (ventral): Towards the front.
Posterior (dorsal): Towards the back.
Medial : Closer to the midline.
Lateral : Away from the midline.

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Joints

1. Fixed Joints (fibrous joints) : Joints that have no movement. They are held together with fibrous (high strength) connective tissue. You will find these joints in the sutures of the skull. These immovable joints are also classified as synarthrosis .
2. Slightly Movable Joints (cartilaginous joints) : Joints found in the vertebrae of the spine and the ribcage. The vertebrae are connected to each other by cartilage pads which allows for slight movement. These slightly movable joints are also classified as amphiarthrosis.
3. Freely Movable Joints (synovial joints) : The most common joints found in the body. These joints allow the head to move from side to side, the knee and elbow to bend, and the shoulder to rotate. Freely movable joints are also classified as diarthrosis.

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six different types of synovial joints

Ball and socket joints allow circumduction, rotation, and angular movements in all planes (shoulder and hip).
Hinge joints allow the movements of flexion and extension in one plane (Knee and elbow).
Pivot joints allow for rotation around a central axis. This allows range of motion of the head and stability of the neck.
Saddle joints allow movement of flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, and circumduction and opposition. (Example: The thumb.) Gliding joints allow for inversion and eversion. (Example: the ankle.) Condyloid joints allow for circumduction, abduction, adduction, flexion, and extension. (Example: the wrist.)

Synovial joints contain articular cartilage, ligaments, synovial cavity, bursa, and joint capsules. All of these aspects allow the bones different ranges of motion.

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Articular cartilage

is smooth and healthy tissue that allows joints to move easier; this allows bones to glide over each other with less friction.

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Ligaments

are the connective tissues which hold bones together. They can be found on the outside or inside of the joint cavity.

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The joint capsule

is a fibrous connective tissue that seals the joint space like an envelope. The joint capsule provides stability to the joint and surrounds the synovial cavity.

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Synovial fluid

is a lubricant inside the joint capsule. It is concealed by the synovial membrane. Synovial fluid’s job is to cushion joints and make it easier for bones and cartilage to move past each other.

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Bursa

is a sac filled with fluid that minimizes friction absorbs shock.

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Movements around a joint

1. Flexion : Movement that decreases the joint angle.
2. Extension: Movement that increases the joint angle.
3. Adduction : Movement toward the midline of the body.
4. Abduction : Movement away from the midline of the body.
5. Rotation : Movement either toward the midline or away from the midline of the body.
6. Circumduction : A combination of flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction movements.
7. Supination : Rotational movement at the radioulnar joint in the wrist. (Rotating the palm face up.)
8. Pronation : Rotational movement at the radioulnar joint in the wrist. (Rotating the palm face down.)
9. Inversion : Turning the sole of the foot toward the midline of the body.
10. Eversion : Turning the sole of the foot away from the midline of the body.

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Neutral Spine position

Neutral spine is defined as the natural position of the spine when all parts of the body are in good alignment. In the neutral spine position, the pelvis is neutral while the natural curves of the back are maintained.

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Static Posture

Static posture is the alignment of the body while it is still. It refers to the length- tension relationships of the muscles that correspond to the alignment of the joints. Problems with posture may first be noticed when there are obvious issues with static posture.

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Dynamic Posture

Dynamic posture refers to the alignment of the body during movement specifically to the length- tension relationships between working and opposing muscles. A poor dynamic posture can affect static posture (and vice- versa). It is important to keep dynamic posture in mind when performing repetitive movements during exercise.

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Tight Hip Flexors

can cause many problems with posture, because the human body is meant to be upright most of the time, not seated at a desk all day. The hip flexors become shortened due to sitting for long periods of time. This can cause the pelvis to rotate anteriorly or tilt downward in front. As a result, the lumbar spine becomes arched and the thoracic spine develops a hunch back alignment. You may also gain a forward head posture when sitting for too long at a desk. Tight hip flexors make it impossible for the abdominal muscles to work. This makes it difficult to achieve benefit from an abdominal workout. To make up for the weak hip extensors, the hamstrings may take over the work, increasing their risk for injury due to excessive strain which was originally meant for the glutes.

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Self- Myofascial Release

Myo means muscle and fascial means the tissue that surrounds the muscles. Repeated muscle contractions can develop adhesions of tension in the muscle. This tension can be released through a deep tissue massage, which is best done by a professional. You or your client can spend the hourly rate to get the client’s muscles worked on by a therapist. If that’s not an option, then you yourself can attempt to massage them by using a foam roller, a medicine ball, or even a tennis ball. This can be done before or after a workout and should focus on those muscles causing posture problems and imbalances. Use the foam roller before you perform your stretching and flexibility routine. Begin by placing the part of the body that needs massaging on the roller, keeping the muscle relaxed as much as possible while applying pressure to its entire length. You may notice that some spots hurt the client more than others. Spend about twenty seconds applying pressure to those tender spots. Each time you perform this massage, you should notice less tension in the muscle. Over time, those tender spots will seem to disappear.

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Increased Flexibility Training

Undergoing such flexibility exercises as yoga or Pilates can have an extremely beneficial effect on muscle imbalances and posture problems. Stretching increases both the flexibility of the muscles along with their strength, and the various poses in yoga will help work out any existing imbalances. Recommend that your client begin a stretching routine, one which pays equal attention to all parts of the body – or, specifically those parts requiring correction – or have them enroll in a flexibility- specific class, such as yoga.