Chapter 2 Essential chemistry Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Essential chemistry Deck (27)
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Atomic Mass

Number of protons

1

Stable Atom

Outermost shell is filled to capacity (2 or 8) otherwise unstable

2

Valence Electrons

Electrons on the outermost shell

3

Electronegativity

Capacity of an atom to pull electrons towards itself

4

Isotope

Form of an element with difference in mass

5

Radioactive Isotope

Nucleus decays spontaneously giving off particles and energy

6

Matter

Anything that occupies space and has mass

7

Element

Pure substance that cannot be separated into a simpler component substance through chemical processes

8

Covalent bonds

Electrons are shared to have a full outer shell

9

Nonpolar covalent bond

Equal sharing

10

Polar covalent bond

Unequal sharing

11

Ionic bonds

Electrons are lost or gained

12

Cation

Positive

13

Anion

Negative

14

Hydrogen bonds

Attraction between H and O or N

15

A molecules shape determines what

Its function

16

How much water is our body and earth composed of

66% human body weight of water
71% Earths surface

17

Water is required or generated by

Cellular reactions

18

Cohesion

Tendency to stay together

19

Adhesion

Tendency to adhere to a solid

20

Cohesion and Adhesion

Work together to create capillary action

21

Surface tension

Water molecules stay together and do not bond to air

22

Specific heat

Large heat capacity to moderate temperature on land = buffer

23

Low density

Insulator (ex. Ice)

24

Hydrophobic

Repels water

25

Hydrophilic

Attracts water

26

Homestasis

Capacity to keep a stable environment