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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Test Deck (45):
1

Dorthy Day

A journalist and social activist who had frequently run in communist and social circles; converted to Catholicism

2

What is meant by Catholic Social Teaching? (CST)

The call of the popes and bishops for people to let the reign go God’s love shape their world, a call that is rooted in the mission of Jesus Christ. Ideas for social justice described in Church documents.

3

Church's mission expressed in, The Church in the Modern World

Mission handed down from Jesus to save all people from sin and death so that they can share in God's love. An expression of compassion -carried out whenever the Church makes Christ's saving action present in word and deed, primarily through the celebration of the liturgy.

4

Action for justice expressed in, Justice in the World

The church is called to bring Christ's saving presence into the world so that all people might be transformed by his love. Catholic social teaching and the Justice that flows from it are therefore critical to the Church's mission.

5

Signs of the times

The signs of the times are religious, political, cultural, and economic factors that shape the overall situation of society

6

Rerum Novarum, On the Condition of Labor

Controversial encyclical issued in 1891. Like socialism, Rerum Novarum criticized the abuses of liberal capitalism that left the majority of workers with lives little better than slavery. It opposed the socialist solution to that situation (for the worker to take over and abolish private ownership of property) and offered an alternative solution based on the Gospel and Church Tradition. Provides guidance on how society can be more just. Major elements: Cooperation between classes, the dignity of work, the just wage and workers' associations (unions), the role of the state, private ownership of property, defense of the poor

7

The enlightenment

A movement that asserted that reason and science are the basis of knowing truth. This movement dismissed religious teachings

8

Pope Leo XIII

Worked on the Rerum Novarum to come up with a solution to the issue of people living lives similar to slavery. His main points were the ones listed above for the Rerum Novarum: Cooperation between classes, the dignity of work, the just wage and workers' associations (unions), the role of the state (government should avoid interfering in private matters), private ownership of property (all people have right to own property but private property must be fairly distributed), defense of the poor (Christians and governments should make protection of the poor a priority)

9

Encyclicals

letters from the Pope to all the bishops of the world; sometimes they are addressed to all of the Christian people

10

Pastorial letters

(like Economic Justice for All) are typically written by a bishop or group of bishops of all the Catholics in a specific location

11

A constitution is

a text from a council of all the world’s bishops, including the Pope, written for all the world’s Catholics and others

12

Liberalist philosophy

liberalist philosophy of individual rights and autonomy, together with limited government and the ownership of private property was part of the “program” of enlightenment

13

Industrial revolution

the shift from a farming and craft trade economy to an economy based on factory production

14

Capital

As machines in factories enabled goods to be produced faster and cheaper, those who owned the means of producing goods became wealthier

15

Capitalism

The system in which few owned the means of production for their own profit and workers sold their labor for whatever wages they could get

16

Socialism

Socialism advocated distributing wealth according to need, not ownership of capital and profits

17

Karl Marx

A German philosopher who wrote The Communist Manifesto (1848) and Capital (1867). He provided a bitter critique of capitalism. His theory of history predicated that that masses would rise up, overthrow the capitalist class, abolish private property, and create a form of socialist state

18

Communism

An equitable society in which government and laws would be unnecessary. Karl Marx proposed that socialism would lead the way to communism

19

Marxism

Karl Marx’s atheistic theory was adopted as a model for social change by many workers’ movements around the world, and for the formation of modern-day socialist and communist states- none of which had been quite the ideal society that Marx had envisioned

20

Communist Manifesto

Written by Karl Marx critiquing capitalism

21

Frederic Ozanam

Started the St. Vincent de Paul Society, a worldwide charitable organization for the poor

22

Cardinal James Gibbons

(of Baltimore) supported the Knights of Labor, a union supported by US hierarchy

23

Natural Law

A God given need for creation, including human beings, to follow what God intended it to be

24

Just wage

An amount sufficient to provide a decent life for a worker’s whole family

25

Unions

An organized association of workers formed to protect and further their rights and interests

26

Cold War

A period between 1945 and 1990 when the US and the Soviet Union competed to dominate the world through military might. Many nuclear weapons were used

27

Marginalized

Forced outside the main group

28

Common good

The social condition that allows all people in a community to reach their full human potential and fulfill their human dignity

29

Subsidiary

The idea that large organizations or governments have a responsibility to coordinate and regulate society when individuals and smaller organizations do not or cannot carry out responsibilities necessary for the common good

30

Rights

Those conditions or things that any person needs in order to be fully what God created him or her to be. Individual rights are limited by the responsibility for the good of others and the common good for society as a whole

31

Universal Declaration of Human Rights

Human rights that are officially recognized by most nations in the world, listed in a 1948 United Nations document that the Catholic Church has strongly supported as a tool for promoting Justice

32

What is liberation theology? Who coined the term? In addition to the option of the poor, what has been liberations main contribution?

Liberation theology is one way of talking about God amid the reality of the suffering of innocent people. Cardinal Ratzinger (now Pope Benedict XVI) created the term has been used to describe a variety of ways of responding to poverty in Latin America. Liberation theology can appropriately acknowledge God’s love, Christ’s redemption, and the dignity of the human person when understood within the Church’s Scriptures and Traditions. It’s other main contribution has been to emphasize the acting on faith, which is more important than talking about faith

33

Christian base communities

Small groups of 10-20 people who gather to reflect on the meaning of the Gospel for their lives and to support one another. Partially brought on by Liberation theology

34

How is the story of the Russian women used to explain this theme of Life and Dignity of the Human Person

The idea of life and dignity of a human person is that everyone has dignity no matter who they are or what they’ve done. This is because they “are loved by God and made in his image”. The Russian woman reflect this in their actions towards the German prisoners of war. One woman, instead of yelling at the men for what they had done, fed them, treating them as humans with dignity

35

What are the 7 themes of Catholic Social Teaching?

1. the life and dignity of the human person
2. participation: the call to family and community
3. rights and responsibilities
4. The Option for the Poor and Vulnerable
5. The Dignity of work and the Rights of Workers
6. Solidarity
7. care of God's creation

36

Explain the two aspects of participation--the common good and subsidiarity

The Common good is social condition that allows all the people in the community to reach their full potential and fulfill their human dignity. This means that certain groups that are excluded should be paid attention to.
Subsidiarity is the balance of large government organizations: They are allowed to step in if it helps the common good, but they shouldn’t take over the social responsibilities of smaller org. or individuals if it is things they can manage themselves.

37

Recount the story of Melba Pattillo Beals. Why is her story used to explain this theme of Catholic Social Teaching?

Melba was one of those people that was marginalized, in her case because of the color of her skin. She was not being given the opportunity to have an equal education as everyone else. Because the local governments were not able to figure out how to deal with the problem of segregation, higher authorities stepped in to help the common good

38

How are rights and responsibilities related?

An individual’s rights are limited by their responsibilities for the good of others, as well as for the common good of the whole society.

39

What does the option for the poor and vulnerable mean? When was this idea developed?

It is the choice to put the needs of society’s most poor and vulnerable members first among all social concerns. Developed as part of Latin American liberation theology

40

In the 1968 conference in Medellin, Colombia, how does the bishop describe the option for the poor and vulnerable?

The Latin American Bishop described the option for the poor and vulnerable “ We ought to sharpen the awareness of our duty of solidarity with the poor, to which charity leads us. This solidarity means that we make ours their problems and their struggles, that we know how to speak with them”.

41

What are the two parts of the bishops two parts of ‘option’?

First it involves freely choosing to become friends or partners with the poor, and taking on their problem as our problems. Second, the option involves a commitment to take action to transform the injustice that prevents the poor and vulnerable people from living out their God-given dignity.

42

What is a maquiladora?

a foreign owned assembly plant

43

What is the Maria Guadalupe Torres story?

when she was 16, she came from Mexico and worked in a maquiladora for 18 years with not good conditions. She began organizing to improve the conditions inside the factory, and discovered that workers do have rights. Now she works with the Border Committee of Working Women.

44

What is solidarity?

A constant commitment to the common good

45

What is solidarity based upon

It is based upon the belief that “we are all really responsible for all.” It is also based on the understanding that all people are part of the same human family, whatever national, racial, ethnic, economic, or ideological differences may be.