Chapter 22 - Respiratory Flashcards Preview

A&P 2 TEST #3 > Chapter 22 - Respiratory > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 22 - Respiratory Deck (81):
1

These two systems go hand in hand when it comes to supply of O2 & disposal of CO2

Circulatory & respiratory.

2

Functions of the nose:

-airway
-filters/moistens inspired air
-resonating speech chamber
-olfactory receptors

3

Anatomy of the nose

Top part between the eyes: root & bridge
Actual 'bridge': dorsum nasi
Point of the nose: apex
Nostrils: naris
Little indention above the lip below the nose: philtrum

4

Describe the nasal cavity

-Divided by nasal septum
-Roof made of sphenoid & ethmoid bone
-Floor is made of soft & hard palates

5

4 cavities in bones to enlighten skull/moisten air

Frontal
Ethmoid
Sphenoid
Maxillary

6

"Pharynx" is described as

muscular throat

7

Pharynx regions

Eustachian tube ->
Nasopharynx ->
Oropharynx ->
Laryngopharynx (bifurcates to) -> esophagus &
larynx

8

Where does the Eustachian tube open into

Lateral walls of the pharynx

9

Another name for the Eustachian Tube

pharyngotymapanic

10

What does the pharyngotympanic tube do?

equalize pressure

11

What part of the pharynx bifurcates and where do the paths lead to?

Laryngopharynx.. one path to the esophagus one path to the larynx.

12

What is the purpose & location of the larynx?

Located continuous with trachea & provides airway and speech production

13

What kind of cartilage is the larynx made of?

hyaline

14

The Adam's apple proper name is ? & what kind of cartilage is it?

Laryngeal prominence
Thyroid cartilage

15

The cricoid cartilage is what kind of shape? Where is it between?

Bowtie; between cricothyroid ligament & cricothracheal ligament

16

This elastic cartilage structure covers the larynx when swallowing

Epiglottis

17

This is where the laryngeal prominence is located

Thyroid cartilage

18

Structure known as "false vocal cord" & best described as "curtains"

Vestibular folds

19

Describe Vestibular folds

No speech sounds ; hides vocal ligaments

20

Known as "true vocal cords" & best described as "glass doors"

Vocal folds

21

The slit between the vocal folds is called the ..?
& can only be seen by looking down.

Glottis

22

What happens when vocal folds bang into eachother?

Air rushes from the lungs; causes vibration; sounds

23

Vestibular folds do what besides hide vocal folds?

Help glottis close while swallowing

24

Vocal folds can act as a _________ to prevent air passage?

Sphincter

25

What is Valsava's maneuver? When does it usually occur?

"bear down"; forced expiration. Glottis closes to prevent expiration. This usually occurs with heavy lifting & defecation [pooping]

26

This is the intermittent release of expired air while opening/closing the glottis

Speech

27

Pitch is determined by the ____ & ____ of vocal cords

Length & tension; tone.

28

Loudness depends on...

force of air

29

Nose, mouth, & sinuses ___ & ___ sound quality

Enhance & amplify

30

Pharynx muscles, tongue, soft palate, & lips shape..

sound into language

31

How far does the trachea run?

From the larynx to the carina (last ring), where trachea branches into 2 bronchi

32

How many branches do air passages undergo?

23

33

These are the conducting zone structures

Trachea
R/L Primary Bronchi
Secondary Lobe bronchi [3 right, 2 left]
Tertiary Bronchi
Bronchioles
Terminal bronchi

34

How many lobes are there total and how many in each lung?

5; 3 right 2 left

35

Gap created in left lug is called the

Cardiac notch

36

Indentions in each lobe are called

Horizontal fissures
R/L Oblique fissures

37

Gas movement is aka..
Gas exchange is aka..
these happen ____.

Ventilation
Perfusion
Simultaneously

38

In what part of the respiratory system does gas exchange usually occur?

Alveoli

39

End of a branch's structure...

- Terminal bronchiole [smooth muscle; bronchoconstriction]
- Respiratory bronchiole
- Alveoli cluster
- Alvelous

40

Name the two kinds of alveolar walls:

Type I & II cells

41

What happens in type I?

02 & C02 go from high to low concentration through simple squamous epithelium diffusion cells.

42

What happens in type II?

Surfactant is released from cuboidal cells to decrease surface tention

43

What keeps surfaces sterile in the alveoli

alveolar macrophages

44

What do alveolar pores do?

Holes that equalize pressure

45

Average # of respirations per minute at rest ? & is known as

14; tidal breathing

46

Patm stands for ? What is the regular at sea level?

Atmospheric pressure; 760 mmHg

47

Which pressure is always changing?

Ppul - intrapulmonary pressure

48

Pip stands for?
Lungs collapse if ___ & ___ are equal.

Intrapleural pressure
Pip & Ppul

49

Lung collapse is aka & is caused by

Atelactasis; bronchiole obstruction

50

Define pneumothorax

Most common lung collapse case due to air entering the pleural cavity

51

Muscles that are used during forced exhilation

Abdominal & internal intercostal

52

Know the Patm & Ppul during inspiration & what is happening.

Thoracic cage opens/becomes larger.
Intercostal muscles contract.
External intercostal & diaphragm used during normal breathing.
Ppul decreases to -1 causing Patm to be 759
Air flows into the lungs because of pressure gradient.

53

Know the Patm & Ppul during expiration & what is happening.

Thoracic volume decreases.
Intercostal muscles & diaphragm relax.
Ppul rises to +1 mmHg causing Patm to be 761
Air flows out of lungs because of pressure gradient.

54

Inspiratory muscles (diaphragm & external intercostals) consume energy to overcome 2 factors that slow air passage. These two factors are:

1. Air resistance
2. Alveolar surface tension [type II cells]

55

Airway resistance is usually insignificant because of

large diameter of airway

56

Airway resistance disappears where and why

terminal bronchioles; this is where diffusion occurs

57

____ ____ attracts water molecules to one another at a gas-liquid surface

surface tension

58

_____ is a detergent like lipid-protein complex made by alveoli to reduce surface tension

surfactant

59

Insufficient ____ in premies causes RDS

surfactant; lungs aren't ready

60

Know the respiratory capacities & volumes

IRV + TV = IC
ERV + RV = FRC
IRV + ERV + TC = VC
RV + VC = TLC

61

Instrument used to measure respiratory capacities & volumes

spirometer

62

Anatomical dead space are

air filled ducts ( larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles)

63

Alveolar dead space

Nonfunctional alveoli

64

Nonrespiratory air movements include

Cough
Sneeze
Cry/laugh
Yawn

65

The amount of gas reaching in and out of the alveoli is called

ventilation

66

The blood flow reaching alveoli (bf exchange) is called

perfusion

67

As O2 binds, Hb affinity for O2...
As O2 is released Hb affinity for O2...

Increases
Decreases

68

Hb is fully saturated when..

All four heme groups carry O2

69

Hb has greater affinity for ___ than ___ or ___.

CO- carbon monoxide
co2/o2

70

What is the Bohr effect?

Acidity is proportional to the amt. of oxygen release from Hb; slow breathing

71

CO2 + H20 ---> H2CO3 ---> H+ + HCO3
carbonic acid bicarbonate ion

CO2 & H+ Levels increase, pH weakens the OHb-O2 bond

72

What does hyperventilation do?

Stimulates
chemoreceptors in medulla ; increased heart rate

73

Know the 3 ways CO2 can be transported

10% dissolved in plasma
20% bound to Hb
70% as bicarbonate ions HCO3- in plasma

74

What is the chloride shift?

As HCO3- rushes out of RBCs, Cl flows in from the plasma

75

Describe hypoventilation

Slow breathing
CO2 accumulates in blood
pH drops
respiratory acidosis.
[opposite effect in hyperventilation]

76

What neurons are involved in neurons

medulla & pons

77

Pontine center & dorsal respiratory group influence what?

Ventral respiratory group; tidal breathing; 'pacemaker'

78

Define apnea

temporary cessation of breathing, when CO2 is low

79

What is the most powerful respiratory stimulant

CO2; rise in CO2=Fall in pH

80

When does O2 become the most powerful stimulant

when you're about to die

81

what saturates blood?

oxygen