Flashcards in Chapter 22 - Respiratory Deck (81):
These two systems go hand in hand when it comes to supply of O2 & disposal of CO2
Circulatory & respiratory.
Functions of the nose:
-filters/moistens inspired air
-resonating speech chamber
Anatomy of the nose
Top part between the eyes: root & bridge
Actual 'bridge': dorsum nasi
Point of the nose: apex
Little indention above the lip below the nose: philtrum
Describe the nasal cavity
-Divided by nasal septum
-Roof made of sphenoid & ethmoid bone
-Floor is made of soft & hard palates
4 cavities in bones to enlighten skull/moisten air
"Pharynx" is described as
Eustachian tube ->
Laryngopharynx (bifurcates to) -> esophagus &
Where does the Eustachian tube open into
Lateral walls of the pharynx
Another name for the Eustachian Tube
What does the pharyngotympanic tube do?
What part of the pharynx bifurcates and where do the paths lead to?
Laryngopharynx.. one path to the esophagus one path to the larynx.
What is the purpose & location of the larynx?
Located continuous with trachea & provides airway and speech production
What kind of cartilage is the larynx made of?
The Adam's apple proper name is ? & what kind of cartilage is it?
The cricoid cartilage is what kind of shape? Where is it between?
Bowtie; between cricothyroid ligament & cricothracheal ligament
This elastic cartilage structure covers the larynx when swallowing
This is where the laryngeal prominence is located
Structure known as "false vocal cord" & best described as "curtains"
Describe Vestibular folds
No speech sounds ; hides vocal ligaments
Known as "true vocal cords" & best described as "glass doors"
The slit between the vocal folds is called the ..?
& can only be seen by looking down.
What happens when vocal folds bang into eachother?
Air rushes from the lungs; causes vibration; sounds
Vestibular folds do what besides hide vocal folds?
Help glottis close while swallowing
Vocal folds can act as a _________ to prevent air passage?
What is Valsava's maneuver? When does it usually occur?
"bear down"; forced expiration. Glottis closes to prevent expiration. This usually occurs with heavy lifting & defecation [pooping]
This is the intermittent release of expired air while opening/closing the glottis
Pitch is determined by the ____ & ____ of vocal cords
Length & tension; tone.
Loudness depends on...
force of air
Nose, mouth, & sinuses ___ & ___ sound quality
Enhance & amplify
Pharynx muscles, tongue, soft palate, & lips shape..
sound into language
How far does the trachea run?
From the larynx to the carina (last ring), where trachea branches into 2 bronchi
How many branches do air passages undergo?
These are the conducting zone structures
R/L Primary Bronchi
Secondary Lobe bronchi [3 right, 2 left]
How many lobes are there total and how many in each lung?
5; 3 right 2 left
Gap created in left lug is called the
Indentions in each lobe are called
R/L Oblique fissures
Gas movement is aka..
Gas exchange is aka..
these happen ____.
In what part of the respiratory system does gas exchange usually occur?
End of a branch's structure...
- Terminal bronchiole [smooth muscle; bronchoconstriction]
- Respiratory bronchiole
- Alveoli cluster
Name the two kinds of alveolar walls:
Type I & II cells
What happens in type I?
02 & C02 go from high to low concentration through simple squamous epithelium diffusion cells.
What happens in type II?
Surfactant is released from cuboidal cells to decrease surface tention
What keeps surfaces sterile in the alveoli
What do alveolar pores do?
Holes that equalize pressure
Average # of respirations per minute at rest ? & is known as
14; tidal breathing
Patm stands for ? What is the regular at sea level?
Atmospheric pressure; 760 mmHg
Which pressure is always changing?
Ppul - intrapulmonary pressure
Pip stands for?
Lungs collapse if ___ & ___ are equal.
Pip & Ppul
Lung collapse is aka & is caused by
Atelactasis; bronchiole obstruction
Most common lung collapse case due to air entering the pleural cavity
Muscles that are used during forced exhilation
Abdominal & internal intercostal
Know the Patm & Ppul during inspiration & what is happening.
Thoracic cage opens/becomes larger.
Intercostal muscles contract.
External intercostal & diaphragm used during normal breathing.
Ppul decreases to -1 causing Patm to be 759
Air flows into the lungs because of pressure gradient.
Know the Patm & Ppul during expiration & what is happening.
Thoracic volume decreases.
Intercostal muscles & diaphragm relax.
Ppul rises to +1 mmHg causing Patm to be 761
Air flows out of lungs because of pressure gradient.
Inspiratory muscles (diaphragm & external intercostals) consume energy to overcome 2 factors that slow air passage. These two factors are:
1. Air resistance
2. Alveolar surface tension [type II cells]
Airway resistance is usually insignificant because of
large diameter of airway
Airway resistance disappears where and why
terminal bronchioles; this is where diffusion occurs
____ ____ attracts water molecules to one another at a gas-liquid surface
_____ is a detergent like lipid-protein complex made by alveoli to reduce surface tension
Insufficient ____ in premies causes RDS
surfactant; lungs aren't ready
Know the respiratory capacities & volumes
IRV + TV = IC
ERV + RV = FRC
IRV + ERV + TC = VC
RV + VC = TLC
Instrument used to measure respiratory capacities & volumes
Anatomical dead space are
air filled ducts ( larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles)
Alveolar dead space
Nonrespiratory air movements include
The amount of gas reaching in and out of the alveoli is called
The blood flow reaching alveoli (bf exchange) is called
As O2 binds, Hb affinity for O2...
As O2 is released Hb affinity for O2...
Hb is fully saturated when..
All four heme groups carry O2
Hb has greater affinity for ___ than ___ or ___.
CO- carbon monoxide
What is the Bohr effect?
Acidity is proportional to the amt. of oxygen release from Hb; slow breathing
CO2 + H20 ---> H2CO3 ---> H+ + HCO3
carbonic acid bicarbonate ion
CO2 & H+ Levels increase, pH weakens the OHb-O2 bond
What does hyperventilation do?
chemoreceptors in medulla ; increased heart rate
Know the 3 ways CO2 can be transported
10% dissolved in plasma
20% bound to Hb
70% as bicarbonate ions HCO3- in plasma
What is the chloride shift?
As HCO3- rushes out of RBCs, Cl flows in from the plasma
CO2 accumulates in blood
[opposite effect in hyperventilation]
What neurons are involved in neurons
medulla & pons
Pontine center & dorsal respiratory group influence what?
Ventral respiratory group; tidal breathing; 'pacemaker'
temporary cessation of breathing, when CO2 is low
What is the most powerful respiratory stimulant
CO2; rise in CO2=Fall in pH
When does O2 become the most powerful stimulant
when you're about to die