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Flashcards in chapter 23 Deck (80):
1

nervous system divided into two parts

central nervous system, peripheral nervous system

2

what is part of the central nervous system

brain spinal cord

3

what is part of the peripheral nervous system

cranial nerves and spinal nerves

4

how many cranial nerves are there

12

5

how many spinal nerves?

31

6

what are the four lobes of the brain

frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital

7

location of the frontal lobe

front of brain

8

location of the parietal lobe

middle section of the brain

9

location of the temporal lobe

bottom of brain

10

location of occipital lobe

back of the brain

11

functions of frontal lobe

personality, behavior, emotions, voluntary movement, intellectual function, writing, speech, broca's area- motor speech

12

functions of parietal lobe

sensation, ability to recognize body parts

13

functions of temporal

hearing, smell, taste, wernicke's area: language comprehensions

14

functions of occipital

visual reception center, understanding of written material

15

hypothalamus

regulates body temp, sleep cycle, basic vital signs, sex drive

16

cerebellum

balance coordination, voluntary movement

17

thalamus

relay station, sensory

18

what is expressive aphasia

understands but can only produce garbled sounds

19

Broca area

expressive aphasia

20

reflex acr is associated with what nervous system?

peripheral nervous system

21

four types of reflex

deep tendon reflex, superficial, visceral, pathologic (abnormal)

22

example of a deep tendon reflex

knee jerk

23

example of superficial reflex

corneal reflex, abdominal reflex

24

example of visceral reflex

pupillary response to light

25

example of pathologic reflex

babinski's reflex in an adult

26

5 type of spinal nerves

cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, coccygeal

27

how many cervical nerves

8

28

how many thoracic nerves

12

29

how many lumbar nerves

5

30

how many sacral nerves

5

31

how many coccygeal nerves

1

32

atrophy

degeneration of cells

33

neurological functions in the aging adult

atrophy of neurons in brain and spinal cord, slower nerve conduction, slower reaction time, diminished sensations, slowing of muscle movement strength and agility, dizziness and lost of balance

34

African american

higher blood pressure than whites, high cholesterol, diabetes, more socially isolated, lack of health care prevention, tend to have strokes earlier in life and with more severe results than whites

35

FAST

Face, Arm, Speech, Time 3 hr window of time for a stroke

36

vertigo

rotating spinning sensation

37

syncope

sudden loss of strength, temporary loss of consciousness (faint) due to low BP

38

Paroxysmal disease

characterized by altered or lost of consciousness, involuntary muscle movements and sensory disturbance

39

Aura

subjective sensation occurs before seizure or headache that can be auditory,visual, or motor

40

dysphagia

difficulty swallowing

41

dysarthria

difficulty forming words

42

screening exam

on all well patients

43

recheck exam

demonstrate neurodeficit who require periodic assessment

44

complete exam

neurological concerns

45

ABCT

appearance, behavior, cognitive, thought process

46

nystagmus

occurs with the disease of the vestibular system, cerebellum, or brain stem

47

gait step length

15 inches from heel to heel

48

Romburg Test

feet together, arms at side, close eyes hold position for 20 seconds

49

RAM Testing

coordination and skilled movement, sitting pat knees w/ both hands, then turn hands over and pat with back of hands, do faster.

50

finger to finger

touch thumb to each finger on same hand starting with index finger then reverse direction

51

finger to nose

close eyes stretch out arms, person touches tip of their nose with each index finger, alternating hands and speed

52

heel to shin

supine position place heel on opposite knee and run it down the knee to the ankle. normally person moves the heel in a straight line

53

neurological recheck

patients with head trauma or neurologic deficit, observe for increase ICP

54

4 things to check during neurological recheck

1. level of consciousness 2. motor function 3. pupillary response 4. vital signs

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motor functioning during neurological recheck

check voluntary movement by giving specific commands, lift eyebrows, frown, bare teeth

56

pupillary response during neurological recheck

measured in millimeters

57

hyperreflexia

exaggerated reflex, occurs with upper motor neuron lesions brain attack CVA

58

hyporeflexia

absence of a reflex occurs with lower motor neuron problems, spinal cord injury

59

BP changes

risk factor for CVA, Increase of BP sign of increase ICP

60

CVA

brain attack cerebral vascular accident

61

Respiratory change

irregular breathing with periods of apnea causes increase of ICP

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pulse changes

bradycardia increase ICP a-fib increase risk for stroke

63

temp change

slight temp increase with stoke, infection

64

decorticate rigidity

lesion in cerebral cortex flexion of arm, wrist fingers, adduction of arm tight against chest, plantar flexion

65

decerebrate rigidity

more serious; brain stem, stiffly extended, palms pronated, teeth clench

66

metal status

emotional and cognitive functioning

67

organic disorder

due to brain disease, i.e. dementia withdrawl

68

what is a full mental status exam

systematic check of emotional and cognitive functioning includes ABCT

69

what does cognitive functions include

orientation, attention span, recent memory, remote memory, judgement, new learning

70

what is aphasia?

loss of ability to speak or write coherently or to understand speech or writting due to CVA

71

two types of aphasia

wernicke area and broca area

72

what is the mini mental state exam for?

focuses only on cognitive functioning NOT on mood or thought processes

73

what do you screen for with the mini mental state exam

dementia and delirium

74

four unrelated word test falls under what category of cognitive functioning

new learning

75

mini cog test

3 item recal and draw a clock

76

amount of words adult should remember with unrelated word test

adults below 60yr 3-4 words over 30min

77

3 ways to assessing arousal

auditory, tactile, painful

78

4 LOC (level of Consciousness)

1) alert 2) lethargic 3) stupor 4) comatose

79

stupor

have to use vigorous shaking to wake up

80

what is Galscow used for?

coma scale