Flashcards in Chapter 25-America Moves To The City Deck (28):
Mostly run by middle-class native born women, settlement houses in immigrant neighborhoods provided housing, food, education, child care, cultural activities, and social connections for new arrivals to the US. Many women, both native-born and immigrant, developed lifelong passions for social activism in the settlement houses. Jane Addam's Hull House in Chicago Lillian Wald's Henry Street Settlement in New York City were two of the most prominent
Members of a branch of Protestantism that flourished from 1875 to 1925 and encouraged followers to use the Bible a. A moral compass rather than to believe that the Bible represented scientific or historical truth. Many liberal Protestants became active in the "Social gospel" and other f=reform movements of the era
Liberal Protestants (552)
A normal and industrial school led by Booker T. Washington in Tuskegee, Alabama. It focused on training young black students in agriculture and the trades to help them achieve economic independence. Washington justified segregated, vocational training as a necessary first step on the road to racial equality, although critics accused him of being too "accommodationist"
Tuskegee Institute (555)
Colleges and universities created from allocation of public land through the Morrill Act of 1862 and the Hatch Act of 1887. These grants helped fuel the boom in higher education in the late nineteenth century, and many of today's public universities derive from them
A distinctive American philosophy that emerged in the late nineteenth century around the theory that the true value of an idea lay in its ability to solve problems. The pragmatists thus embraces the provisional, uncertain nature of experimental knowledge. Among the most well known purveyors of pragmatism were John Dewey Oliver Wendell Holmes, and William James.
A scandal- mongering practice of journalism that emerged in New York during the gilded age out of the circulation battles between Joseph pulitzer's New York world and William Randolph Hearst's New York journal. The expression has remained a pejorative term referring to sensationalist journalism practiced with unethical, unprofessional standards.
Yellow journalism (558)
An organization founded in 1890 to demand the vote for women .NAWSA argued that women should be allowed to vote because their responsibilities in the home and family are the indispensable in the public decision making process. During World War 1, NAWSA supported the war effort and lauded women's role in the Allied victory, which help to finally achieve action wide woman suffrage in the 19th century.
National American Woman Suffrage Association (563)
Founded in Ohio in the 1870s to combat the evils of excessive alcohol consumption the actual went on to embrace a broad reform agenda, including campaigns to abolish hprostitution and gain the right to vote for women
Women's Christian Temperance Union(564)
Mid-19th century movement in European and American literature and the arts that sought to depict contemporary life and society as it actually was, in all its unvarnished detail. Adherents eschewed the idealism and nostalgia of the earlier romantic sensibility
A recurring artistic movement that, in the context of the late 19th century aspired to capture the peculiarities, or "local color," of America's various regions in the face of modernization and national standardization
An offshoot of mainstream realism, this late-19th century literary movement purported to apply detached scientific objectivity to the study of human characters shaped by a degenerate heredity and extreme or sordid social environments.
A turn of the century movement among progressive architects and city planners, who aimed to promote order, harmony, and virtue while beautifying the nation's new urban spaces with grand boulevard, welcoming parks, and monumental public buildings.
City beautiful movement(569)
Americans saw this worlds fair, held in Chicago, as their opportunity to claim a place among the world's most civilized societies, by which they meant the countries of Western Europe. The fair honored art, architecture, and science, and it promoters built a mini city in which to host the fair that reflected al the ideals of city planning popular at the time. For many, this was the high point of the city beautiful movement
Worlds Colombian exposition (570)
a middle-class woman dedicated to uplifting the urban masses; college educated (one of first generation); established the Hull House in Chicago in 1889 (most prominent American settlement house, mostly for immigrants); condemned war and poverty; won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1931
black leader; mix of African, French, Dutch, and Indian; earned a Ph.D. at Harvard (the first of his race to achieve that goal); demanded complete equality for blacks, social as well as economic, and helped found the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1910; rejecting Booker T. Washington's gradualism and separatism, he demanded that the "talented tenth" of the black community be given full and immediate access to the mainstream of American life; died as a self-exile in Africa kin 1963, at the age of 95; many of his differences with Washington reflected the contrasting life experiences of southern and northen blacks; assailed Washington as an "Uncle Tom" who was condemning their race to manual labor and perpetual inferiority
W. E. B. Du Bois
Missouri-born author; leapt to fame with The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County (1867); teamed up with Charles Dudney Warner in 1873 to write The Gilded Age which gave a name to the era; since he was from the frontiers of Missouri, he typified a new breed of American authors in revolt against the elegant refinements of the old New England school of writing; wrote The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn in 1884; England's Oxford University awarded him an honorary degree in 1907; was a journalist, humorist, satirist, and foe of social injustice; made his most enduring contribution in recapturing frontier realism and humor in the authentic American dialect
champion of black education (44% of nonwhites were illiterate in 1900); ex-slave; called in 1881 to head the black normal and industrial school at Tuskegee, Alabama; taught balck students useful trades so that they could gain self-respect and economic security; his self-help approach to solving the nation's racial problems was called "accomodationist" because it stopped short of directly challenging white supremacy; avoided the issue of social equality due to imminent southern white racism; instead acquiesced in segregation in return for the right to develop (however modestly and painstakingly) the economic and educational resources of the black community; thought that economic independence would be the ticket to black political and civil rights; taught and researched at Tuskegee Institute; became an internationally famous agricultural chemist, boosted southern economy by discovering hundreds of new uses of the peanut, sweet potato, and soybean
Booker T. Washington
Puritan-reared New England writer; interested in New York newsboys; wrote more than a hundred volumes of juvenile fiction that sold over 100 million copies; his stock formula was that virtue, honesty, and industry are rewarded by success, wealth, and honor- a kind of survival of the purest, especially nonsmokers, nondrinkers, nonswerers, and nonliars; implanted morality and the conviction that there is always room at the top
a leader of a new generation of women who had taken command of the suffrage battle; under her, the suffragists de-emphasized the argument that women desrved the vote as a matter of right, because they were in all respects the equals of men; instead, she stressed the desirability of giving women the vote if they were to continue to discharge their traditional duties as homemakers and mothers in the increasingly public world of the city; women had the special responsibility for the health of the family and the education of the children; they needed a voice on boards of public health, police commissions, and school boards to fulfill these responsibilities in the city; by linking the ballot to a traditional definition of women's role, suffragists made gains in the early 1900s
Carrie Chapman Catt
An English Naturalists who wrote the Origin of the Species in 1859. His theory stated that in nature the strongest of a species survive, the weaker animals died out leaving only the stronger of the species. Through this process of natural selection the entire species improved
born in Hungary and nearly blind; leader in sensationalism; Colored comic supplements featured the "Yellow Kid" (became yellow journalism)
expelled from Harvard for a crude prank; had father's California mine millions and began a power chain of newspaper (San Francisco Examiner); close competitor of Pulitzer;
William Randolph Hearst
He was a philosopher who believed in "learning by doing" which formed the foundation of progressive education. He believed that the teachers' goal should be "education for life and that the workbench is just as important as the blackboard
this author took as his dominant theme the confrontation of innocent Americans with subtle Europeans. In The Bostonians, published in 1886, he wrote on the of the first novels about the rising feminist movement
his canvases of the sea and fisherfolk were masterly, and probably no American artist had excelled him in portraying the awesome power of the ocean
he was the most gifted sculptor yet produced by America, whose works include the "Shaw Monument"
United States landscape architect primarily responsible for the design of Central Park in New York City
Frederick Law Olmsted