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Flashcards in Chapter 3 Deck (54):
1

Organic compounds

Carbon-based molecules usually containing hydrogen atoms in addition to carbon.

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Isomers

Compounds with the same formula but different structural arrangements

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Hydrocarbons

Compounds composed of only carbon and hydrogen (Methane)

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Functional groups

Five groups that affect a molecules function by participating in chemical reactions. Are Polar which makes them Hydrophilic

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Hydroxyl Group

Consist of a hydrogen atom, bonded to a oxygen atom, Which is bonded to the carbon skeleton

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Compounds containing hydroxyl groups

Alcohols (Ethanol)

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Carbonyl Group

a Carbon atom double bonded to a Oxygen atom

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Aldehyde

the carbonyl group is at the end

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Ketone

It is within the chain

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Simple sugars contain

a Carbonyl group and several Hydroxyl groups

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Carboxyl Group

consists of a carbon double bonded to an oxygen atom and also bonded to a hydroxyl group.

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Carboxylic Acids

act as an acid by contributing H+ to a solution, making them ionized

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Amino Group

Nitrogen bonded to two Hydrogens and the carbon skeleton.

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Organic compounds with amino acids

are called Amines, they act as a base by picking up the H+ from a solution

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Amino Acids

contain an amino and carboxyl group

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Phosphate Group

consist of a phosphorus atom bonded to four oxygen atoms. ATP

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Methyl Group

consists of a carbon bounded to three hydrogen atoms.

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Macromolecules

Carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids.

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Polymers

long molecules consisting of many identical or similar building blocks strung together

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Monomers

the building blocks of polymers

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how are monomers linked together

dehydration reaction

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dehydration reaction

a reaction that removes a molecules of water as two molecules become bonded together

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Hydrolysis

reverse of a dehydration reaction, cell does this to digest polymer

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Enzymes

specialized macromolecules that speed up chemical reactions in cells

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Carbohydrates

Class of molecules that range from small sugar molecules to large polysaccarides

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Monosaccharides

simple sugars that are the monomers of carbohydrates (glucose and fructose)

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Sugar molecule composition

one hydroxide group and one carbonyl group

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Monosaccharides

Particularly glucose are the main fuel molecules for cellular work

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Glucose

common monosaccharide C6H12O6

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Disaccharide

constructed from two monosaccharide monomers by dehydration reaction

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Polysaccarides

are Macromolecules, polymers of thousands of monosaccharides that can store molecules

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Glycogen

Polysaccaride that animals store glucose in

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Cellulose

Most abundant organic compound on Earth, is a polymer of glucose but monomers are arranged parallel to each other

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Lipids

Are a diverse group of molecules that are very hydrophobic

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Phospholipids

major component of cell membranes

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Fat

large lipid made from glycerol and fatty acids. Consist of three carbons, each bearing a hydroxy group

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Fatty Acid

a Carboxyl group and a hydrocarbon chain. The non polar C-H bonds are reason fats are hydrophobic

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Unsaturated Fatty acid

a fatty acid who's hydrocarbon chain contains one or more double bond (cause kinks)

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Hydrogenation

Adds hydrogen to convert them to saturated fats. also creates trans fats though

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Phospholipids

the major component of cell membranes. structurally singular to fats except they have two fatty acids attach to glycerol instead of three

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Steroids

are lipids in which the carbon skeleton contains four fused rings

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Cholesterol

A common component in animal cell membranes, precursor of making steroids including sex hormones

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Protein

A polymer of small building blocks called amino acids

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Receptor Proteins

Built into cell membranes receive and transmit such signals to your cells

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Collagen

structural protein forms long, strong fibers of connective tissues, 40% of protein in body is this

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Lysozyme

Consists of one long polymer of amino acids, that destroy bacterial cells

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Denaturation

A protein unravels losing its specific shape and function. excessive heat can do this

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Amino Acids

an amino and a carboxyl group

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Peptide Bond

cells join amino acid through dehydration reaction, linking two groups together with a water molecule removed

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Polypeptide

a chain of amino acids

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Gene

Programs the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide

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RNA

ribonucleic acid is the intermediary that genes work through

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Nucleotide

The monomers that make up nucleic acids. A phosphate group bonded to a sugar which is bonded to a Nitrogen base.

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Polynucleotide

The sugar of one nucleotide bonds to the phosphate group on the next monomer