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Which of the following was a focus of codes of ethics during earlier nursing times?
a. Professional standards
b. Practice standards
c. The scope of practice standards
d. The virtue and morality of nurses

Correct D: The virtue, character, and morality of nurses were the focus of early nursing codes of ethics, in addition to key principles that guided nursing practice.


Which of the following is true of the Canadian Nurses Association’s Code of Ethics for Registered Nurses?
a. It offers suggestions on resolving routine practice issues.
b. It contains a dispute resolution mechanism.
c. It offers a framework and guide for ethical practice.
d. It is closely aligned with the physician’s code of ethics.

Correct C: The Code contains nursing values and ethical responsibilities, as well as ethical endeavours, all of which guide and frame ethical reflection and decision making in nursing practice


Which primary value from the CNA Code of Ethics is being followed by a nurse who intervenes to address an unsafe nursing practice?
a. Being accountable
b. Providing safe, compassionate, competent, and ethical care
c. Promoting justice
d. Promoting health and well-being

Correct B: Nurses question and intervene to address unsafe, noncompassionate, unethical, or incompetent practice or conditions that interfere with their ability to provide safe, compassionate, competent, and ethical care.


Which primary ethical nursing value is being followed by a nurse who respects the wishes of a patient to decline to receive information about her health condition?
a. Promoting and respecting informed decision making
b. Preserving dignity
c. Being accountable
d. Promoting health and well-being

Correct A: Nurses promote autonomy and self-determination in patients, allowing them to make their own choices


Which of the following statements best describes the “ethical responsibilities” in the CNA Code of Ethics?
a. Ethical responsibility deals with ethical endeavours.
b. Nurses’ ethical responsibilities are informed by seven primary values.
c. Social justice must be addressed consistently.
d. Primary nursing values outline caring responsibilities.

Correct B: The seven primary values in Part I of the Code inform nurses’ ethical responsibilities, which help guide nurses’ decision making.


Which of the following rationales explains the development of the ethical endeavours section of the CNA Code of Ethics?
a. Nurses are expanding their advocacy role.
b. Canadians have become more diverse and have different health care needs.
c. Nurses work with more “English as a second language” clients.
d. Health resources are increasingly scarce.

Correct B: Canadians have become more diverse and have different health care needs. Nurses today work with the homeless, within the military, and with new immigrants to Canada. Increased numbers of immigrants, for instance, are at risk of deteriorating health as part of the transition to living in Canadian society.


Which of the following statements best describes the intended result of the ethical decision-making process?
a. There must only be one possible outcome.
b. There must be several equally acceptable options.
c. The goal is to discuss options, not decisions.
d. More than one proposed intervention may be ethical.

Correct D: More than one proposed intervention may be ethical and reflective of good ethical practice.


Which of the following is being used by an interdisciplinary team that implements and evaluates a plan of action after considering key players, clarifying values, and exploring alternatives?
a. A code of ethics
b. An ethics committee
c. Practice standards
d. An ethical decision-making model

Correct D: The process described is standard in ethical decision-making models.


Which of the following best describes the goals of an ethics committee?
a. To provide a single view toward the outcome of an ethical issue
b. To present various views or “lenses” on the issues
c. To develop standards of practice for nurses
d. To ensure that comfort is achieved

Correct B: Ethics committees present various views of or “lenses” on the issues, and there can be more than one alternative outcome.


Which of the following is a nurse demonstrating if he takes an unresolved ethical situation forward to an ethics committee?
a. Nonmaleficence
b. Beneficence
c. Accountability
d. Promoting justice

Correct C: Being accountable is one of the primary nursing values in the CNA Code of Ethics. This nurse is demonstrating responsibility and accountability.


What is the main role of an ethics committee?
a. Consultation
b. Education
c. Policy
d. All of the above

Correct D: Ethics committees offer suggestions but do not direct care decisions. Educating staff on ethical issues is a key responsibility. Changing technologies require the need for evolving policies and guidelines around everyday ethical issues, and the committee is the expert opinion on these matters.


Who of the following is likely to be a member of a hospital ethics committee?
a. Funeral director
b. Chaplain
c. Community activist
d. Palliative care volunteer

Correct B: Chaplains are often part of an ethics committee. The committee is usually made up of professional staff with a certain level of experience in and knowledge of ethical issues.


Ethical principles inform only modern codes of ethics.

Correct: Ethical principles have been documented as far back as 1780 B.C. and form the basis of both historical and modern codes of ethics.


A code of ethics identifies disciplinary actions and resulting consequences for nurses who are investigated for misconduct.

Correct: A professional body normally implements discipline and consequences.