Chapter 3 - Areas of Development Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 3 - Areas of Development Deck (34)
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1

Define Thinking

Mental manipulation of representations of information we encounter in our environment

2

Define decision making.

A form of thinking that you select among alternatives.

3

Define memory.

The power or process of reproducing or recalling what had been learned and retained especially through associative mechanisms.

4

Encoding

To convert (something such as a body of information) from one system of communication into another; especially to convert a message into code.

5

What are the three stages of of memory?

Encoding
Storage
Retrieval

6

What is the role of the hippocampus in memory?

Hippocampus is part of the brain that interprets emotion and memory and emotion and connected. A part of the emotion system is in charge of sending information into memory and the main location of this transfer of information is in the hippocampus. Necessary for making new memories

7

What is the role of the amygdala in memory?

Helps store memories and events that were emotional so that the brain is able to recognize similar events in the future.

8

Define change blindness.

When people miss changed that happen in their immediate environment and that they do not notice has changed.

9

What is the Montessori method? Apply the method to classroom.

An approach that emphasizes active learning, independence, cooperation and learning in harmony with each child’s unique development.
Give an example.

10

What are the stages of Lawrence Kohlberg’s theory.

1. Obedience and punishment
2. Individualism
3. Approval
4. Law and Order
5. Social contract
6. Principled conscience

11

Define the Justice Perspective.

The justice perspective is Lawrence Kohlberg’s perspective that men are often more justice oriented than women and believe that finding justice is always their main goal.

12

Carol Gillian’s levels of morality.

Pre-conventional

13

Define the care perspective.

Carol Gilligan’s Carr perspective talks about how mothers are selfless human beings that focus on other more than themselves and that is in them to be caring and giving.

14

What is Lev Voygotsky’s theory?

People must learn from an individual who is more knowledgeable than themselves.

15

Define the zone of proximal development.

Related to how much a person can learn on their own without guidance from others and what a child can achieve with guidance and encouragement from a skilled partner.

16

Define the more knowledgeable other.

Someone who has a better understanding of something than the actual learner so that they can gain knowledge and insight

17

Define scaffolding.

Those elements of the task that are initially beyond the learners capacity thus permitting them to concentrate upon completing only those elements that are wining their range of competence.

18

Three types of speech:

Social speech - external communication that people use to talk to others (age 2)
Private speech - the internal communication that a person directs themselves and serves as an intellectual function (age 3)
Silent inner speech - when private speech diminishes in its audibility until it becomes a self-regulating function (age 7)

19

Define holophrase.

This is a single word that expresses a complete thought.
- the child uses “bye, bye” in demanding tone to express his desire to leave.

20

Define Under extension.

Use of words to refer to a narrower category of objects or events that the term signifies.
- the child uses the word cat only for the family cat, not other felines.

21

Define overextension.

Applying the word go several object that share a particular characteristic.
- calling everything with 4 legs a “dog”

22

Language acquisition milestones

Newborn: reflexive communication, crying, facial expressions
2 months: cooing, fussing, crying and laughing
3-6 months: squeals, growls, vowel sounds
6-10 months: babbling, both consonant and vowel sounds
10-12 months: comprehension of simple words intonation and deaf

23

B.F. Skinner and language

- proposed language is a result of operant conditioning
- example: sounds made by a baby are reinforced by parents through behaviours like hugs smiles and positive speech
Utterances + reinforcement = promotion of languages

24

Noam Chomsky and language

- argued that mental structures are at the heart of our capacity to interpret language
- language is biological based

25

Define Language acquisition device.

A biologically based innate module to interpret language that needs to be triggered by verbal input from the environment

26

Boca’s Area

- located in the frontal lobe
- if it is damaged it can used slow, laboured, ungrammatical and unemotional speech

27

Wernicke’s Area

- located I the temporal lobe
- if damaged speech will remain fluent and grammatical but will be nonsensical and comprehension of others is impaired

28

Raymond Cattell

Created the fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence
- fluid intelligence: the ability to solve new problems, use logic in bed situations and identify patterns
- crystallized intelligence: ability to use learned knowledge and experience

29

Four stages of dementia

Mild cognitive impairment
Mild dementia
Moderate dementia
Severe dementia

30

Stages of Alzheimer’s

Pre-clinical
Mild cognitive impairment
Alzheimer’s dementia