Flashcards in Chapter 3.2 Chromosomes Deck (28):
Outline the characteristics of prokaryotic chromosomes
Single naked chromosome + plasmids
Not associated with histone protein
Contains all the genetic information for basic life processes
One circular DNA molecule: one copy per gene (when not under cell division)
Survival characteristics (e.g. antibiotic resistance)
Can be present in multiple copies even not under cell division
Can be incorporated into the nucleoid chromosome
Can be transferred between species (used for exchanging genetic information between bacteria) --> useful for GM
Which technique is used to measure the length DNA molecules
Autoradiography (auto -- automatic, radio -- radioactive isotope, graphy -- picture)
It was used to:
1) measure the length of DNA molecules,
2) reveal that prokaryotic chromosomes only have one DNA molecule
Procedures of autoradiography
1. Labeling DNA molecules of E.coli: E.coli cells are grown in a medium with tritiated thymidine (which contains thymine (base used for making nucleotides for replication) with tritrium, a radioactive isotope of H)
2. Getting the DNA molecules: E.coli cells are put on a dialysis membrane where their cell walls are digested by lysosomes. The cells then gentally burst to release the DNA molecules onto the membrane
3. Applying a thin film of photographic emulsion to the membrane surface. The membrane is then left in the dark for 2 month.
4. During the 2-month period, tritrium found in E.coli DNA decays and release high-energy electrons, which then reacts with the emulsion and creates a dark grain on the film --> indicates the position of DNA
5. After 2 months, the developed film can then be analyzed with a microscope.
Single strand of eukaryotic DNA rapped around histone proteins.
Why karyotyping requires chromosomes from metaphase?
Eukaryotic chromosomes can only be seen by a LIGHT MICROSCOPE after supercoiling during mitosis/meiosis.
Chromosomes can differ by...
1. Length (number of genes)
2. Loci (location of genes)
3. Position of centromeres (where chromatids are linked during cell division)
What is the significance of organisms of the same species having the same genes at the same location?
Allows crossing over to take place during meiosis --> sexual reproduction
Chromosome number: why important?
The number of chromosomes is a characteristic feature of members of the same species.
Chromosome number of Parascaris equorum (horse threadworm)
Chromosome number of Oryza sativa (rice)
Chromosome number of Homo sapiens
Chromosome number of Pan troglodytes (chimpanzees)
Chromosome number of Canis familaris (dog)
Describe the characteristics of homologous chromosomes
Homologous chromosomes have the same size and structure. They carry the same sequence of genes but not necessarily the same alleles of those genes.
Body chromosomes (non-sex)
All somatic chromosomes are homologous
22 pairs in human
Genome size of Escherichia coli (gut bacteria)
5 million base pairs
Genome size of Homo sapien
3,000 million base pairs
Genome size of T2 phage (virus that attaks E.coli)
0.18 million base pairs
Genome size of Drosophila Melanogaster (fruit flies)
140 million base pairs
Genome size of Paris japonica (woodland plant)
15,000 million base pairs
Why chromosome number and genome size is not an accurate indicator of the complexity of a species
1. The number of functional genes differ from species to species
2. The amount of gene duplication varies (different genes --> 1 AA)
One chromosome per pair (one allele per gene)
Two chromosomes per pair (two alleles per gene)
Diploid cells are less susceptible to genetic diseases (two chromosomes)
Which gene on the Y chromosome determines male feature development?
The genetic characteristic of an organism: number + type of chromosomes possessed
Shows the chromosomes of an organism in homologous pairs of decreasing length. Patterns of banding allow chromosomes of similar size to be distinguished.
Uses chromosomes under metaphase: cells placed on a miscroscope slide --> cover slip gentally pressed against the slide --> cell burst to release chromosomes --> stained using dyes
Uses of karyograms
1. Determine sex
2. Diagnosing Down syndrome and other illnesses casuec by disjunction (by extracting fetal cells from uterus during pregnancy)