Chapter 33 Study Guide Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 33 Study Guide Deck (50)
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1

Define: systemic

Affecting the body as a whole
Pg: 644

Bloodstream as a whole

2

Define: Absorption

The movement of a drug into the bloodstream. The rate of absorption depends on many factors, including the route of administration.

Tissue and body fluids.

3

Define: Side effect

A secondary, typically undesirable effect of a drug or medical treatment.

4

Define: Half-life

The amount of time it takes for half a dose of medication to be metabolized and excreted from the body.

5

What is the official name of a drug?

Trade name

6

What "name" represents the exact drug formula?

The chemical name

7

What factors affect drug dosage?

Age, the presence of other drugs and liver disease.

8

What are the requirements of pediatric dosing compared to adult dosing?

Weight and age must be carefully calculated. Needs to be more exact. Start will small doses and increase over time. mL per kg.

9

What are the most frequently used routes for giving meds?

Oral and Parenteral

Parenteral route: drugs by injections.
Mucous membrane absorption: mouth, throat, nose, eyes, rectum, vagina and respiratory tracts.
Oral route:
Topical absorption: application to the skin, eyes & ears. Ointments, creams, lotions & aerosols.

10

What are the elements of information contained on a prescription order?

Superscription: pt. name and address, date, Rx.
Inscription: main part, name of drug, dosage, form, strength.
Subscription: directions for the pharmacist, size of each dose, amount dispensed, form of drug order.
Signature: directions for the patient. Sig how,when, and what quantities.
Refill information: number of time refill allowed.
Physicians signature: manual signature and DEA registration number.

11

What are the most serious adverse reactions to PCN ?

Hypersensitivity anaphylaxis characterized by hives, angiedema, laryngealedema, or shock.

12

What are some examples of schedule 1 drugs?

Heroin
LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide)
Marijuana
Quaalude (methaqualone)
Peyote ( mescaline)
PCP (phencyclidine)
Ecstasy

13

What primary organ metabolizes drugs?

The liver

14

Define : prophylactic meds

Prevents the occurrence of a condition
Example: vaccines prevent the occurrence of specific infectious diseases.
Pg: 639

15

What is the DEA job?

Drug enforcement administration is responsible for controlling narcotics, investigating the illegal sale of dangerous substances and preventing drug abuse through public education.

16

What is the FDA job?

The food and drug administration regulates the development and sale of all prescriptions and OTC drugs.

17

What is the generic name for Benadryl?

Diphenhydramine ; it is a antihistamine.

18

What is the action of cortisone ?

Action: reduce inflammation
Classification: anti-inflammatory agent
A.K.A: prednisone

19

What is the action of cephalexin ?

Action: kill or inhibit growth of microorganism
Classification: antibiotic
A.K.A: keflex

20

What is the action of Dyazide?

Action: inhibit reabsorption of sodium and chloride in the kidneys; promote excretion of excess fluid in the body.
Classification: diuretic

21

What is the action of keflex?

Action: kill or inhibit growth of microorganism.
Classification: antibiotic
A.K.A: cephalexin

22

What is the action of codeine?

Action: lessen the sensory function of the brain, block pain receptors.
Classification: analgesics

23

What is the action of Norvasc?

Action: block nerve impulses that cause arteries to constrict; slow the heart rate, reducing its contractility; restrict the hormone aldosterone in the blood.
Classification: anti hypertensive agents.
A.K.A: amlodipine

24

What is the names and classification of Lidocaine (xylocaine)?

Classification: anesthetics
Action: produce insensibility to pain or the sensation of pain; block nerve impulses to the brain, resulting in unconsciousness; dilate pupils; lower blood pressure; reduce respiratory and pulse rates.
Example: local: lidocaine (xylocaine), procaine (Novacaine).

25

What are the names and classification of warfarin?

Classification: anticoagulant
Action: delay or block clotting of blood.
Example: warfarin sodium (Coumadin)
Primary uses: treat blood clots

26

What is ASA? Name the classification? Action? And examples?

Aspirin
Classification: analgesic
Action: lessen the sensory function of the brain; block pain receptors
Examples: aspirin, Tylenol, oxycodone (OxyContin)

27

What is APAP? What is the classification, action, examples?

Acetaminophen (Tylenol)
Classification: analgesics
Action: lessen sensory function of the brain; block pain receptors.
Example: OTC narcotics: aspirin, Tylenol.
Narcotic: oxycodone (OxyContin)

28

Analgesic
Action? Example? Primary use? General rise effects?

Action: lessen the sensory function of the brain, block pain receptors.
Examples: nonnarcotic: aspirin, acetaminophen (Tylenol)
Narcotic: oxycodone (OxyContin)
Primary use: relieve pain
General side effects: nonnarcotic: liver and kidney disorders, GI disorders.
Narcotic: suppression of vital signs, agitation, blurred vision, confusion.

29

Oral hypoglycemics agents
Action? Examples? Primary use? General side effects?

Action: reduce blood glucose level by increasing insulin production and/or reducing target cells resistance to insulin, or by delaying glucose absorption.
Examples: acarbose (Precose)
Primary use: manage diabetes mellitus type 2.
General side effects: GI irritation, vertigo, hypersentitivity, fatigue.

30

Diuretics
Actions? Examples? Primary uses? General side effects?

Action: inhibit reabsorption of sodium and chloride in the kidneys; promote excretion of excess fluid in the body.
Examples: Hydrochlorothiazide (Dyazide), furosemide (Lasix),
Primary use: increase urinary output; lower blood pressure.
General side effects: dehydration, muscle weakness, fatigue, gout, hyperglycimia.

31

Define: Local

Restricted to one spot or part, not General

Pg.644

32

Define: Diagnostic

Helps to determine the cause of a particular health problem
Example : injecting antigen serum for allergy testing.

(Terminology describing drug uses pg. 639)

33

Define: Potentiation

A form of synergism in which the effect of one drug is enhanced by the presence of another drug.
Example: two drugs have different actions, but one increases the effect of another.
(Terms related to drug interactions pg. 645)

34

Define: Replacement

Provides the patient with a substance needed to maintain health.

Example: insulin for patients with diabetes

(Terminology describing drug uses pg. 639)

35

Define: Antagonism

The action if one drug diminishes the effect or shortens the duration of action of another drug.

(Related to drug interactions pg. 645)

36

Define: Synergism

A drug enhances the intensity or prolongs the action of another drug.

Example: can have a positive affect as when two different antibiotics are used to treat an infection. Or a negative affect when two drugs lower blood pressure to dangerous levels.

(Terms related to drug interactions pg. 645)

37

Define: Palliative

Indicates that the drug does not cure but provides relief from pain or symptoms related to the disorder.

Example: the use of antihistamine for allergy symptoms or narcotics for pain relief.

(Terminology describing drug uses pg. 639)

38

Define: Therapeutic

Treats a disorder and cures it.

Example: Antibiotics cure bacterial meningitis infections.

(Terminology describing drug uses pg. 639)

39

Analgesic

Block pain receptors

40

Anesthetics

Block nerve impulses

41

Antibiotics

Kill microorganism

42

Antidepressant

Treat depression

43

Antihistamines

Counteract effects of histamine by blocking action in tissues.

44

Antipuretic

Relieve itching

45

Diuretics

Inhibit reabsorption.

46

Anticoagulants

Block or delay blood clots

47

Antifungals

Slow fungus growth

48

Anti hypertensive

Reduce and control blood pressure

49

Hypoglycemic

Reduce blood glucose
Manage type 2 diabetes
Example of drug: acarbose (Precose)

50

Lidocaine (xylocaine) is a

Anesthetic block nerve impulses to brain