Flashcards in Chapter 4 (4.1-4.7) & Chapter 11 (11.1-11.6) Deck (82)
The most abundant element in earth's crust, oceans, and atmosphere, and in the human body
Top 4 elements on planet earth
Oxygen, silicon, aluminum, iron
Top 4 elements in human body
Oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen
What year did Dalton come up with his atomic theory?
What postulate of Dalton's Atomic Theory corresponds with the Law of Conservation of Mass?
Postulate #2 & #3
What postulate of Dalton's Atomic Theory corresponds with the Law of Constant Composition?
What postulate of Dalton's Atomic Theory corresponds with the Law of Conservation of Matter?
Postulate #1 of Dalton's Atomic Theory
All matter is composed of indivisible atoms. An atom is an extremely small particle of matter that retains its identity during chemical reactions.
Postulates #2 & #3 of Dalton's Atomic Theory
An element is a type of matter composed of only one kind of atoms, each atom of a given kind having the same properties. (Mass is one such characteristic property), which means: all atoms of a given element are identical, and all atoms of different elements are different.
Postulate #4 of Dalton's Atomic Theory
Atoms of one element can combine with atoms of other elements to form compounds. A given compound always has the same relative numbers and types of atoms.
Postulate #5 of Dalton's Atomic Theory
Atoms are indivisible in chemical processes. That is, atoms are not created or destroyed in chemical reactions. A chemical reaction simply changes the way the atoms are grouped together.
Lavoisier knew of how many different elements?
Berzelius knew of how many different elements?
Mendeleev knew of how many different elements?
How many total elements are known today?
How many elements are found in nature?
JJ Thomson did his work in what year?
JJ Thomson discovered what?
Electrons (negative particles)
JJ Thomson calculated what?
Electron mass to charge ratio (m/q), NOT the individual value of mass and of charge
JJ Thomson's experiment
Cathode Ray Experiment
Robert Millikan did his work in what year?
Robert Millikan's experiment
Oil Drop Experiment
Robert Millikan measured what?
Charge on an electron
Robert Millikan calculated what?
Mass of an electron (9.109 x 10^-31 kg)
Ernest Rutherford did his work in what year?
Ernest Rutherford's experiment
Alpha Particle Scattering Experiment
Rutherford's "deflecting" of the alpha particles shows what?
The nucleus of the atom is positively charged by positive particles, known as protons.
Rutherford's "bouncing back" of the alpha particles shows what?
The atom has a dense center around which electrons travel, known as the nucleus. The nucleus accounts for most of the atom's mass.
Rutherford's "passing through" the gold foil of the alpha particles shows what?
Most of the atom is empty space, with the nucleus's diameter being 10^-13 cm and the atom's diameter being 10^-8 cm.
Ernest Rutherford's model of the atom
Rutherford & Chadwick did their work in what year?
Rutherford & Chadwick discovered what?
Neutron (neutral particle)
The proof of the neutron
Increased atomic mass
The role of the neutron
Buffer between positive protons and negative electrons (prevents atom from collapsing on itself)
Mass proton = ?
Which subatomic particle has a negligible mass (lighter than the other two)?
What controls the atom's mass?
What determines the identity of an atom?
Number of protons
What controls the chemical behavior of an atom?
What has a neutral charge?
The charge proton and the charge electron have what?
What are isotopes?
Atoms with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons
What is the weighted average of the masses of all the available isotopes of an element?
Where does the "weighting" of the atomic mass come from?
The element's fractional abundance
What is in the center of a nuclide symbol?
What is superscript and to the left of the element symbol in a nuclide symbol?
Mass number (A), represents the number of proton plus the number of neutrons in the nucleus, NEVER a whole number
What is subscript and to the left of the element symbol?
Atomic number (Z), represents the number of protons in the nucleus
What are the trace elements?
Cr, I, Mn, Cu, Li
What is the function of Cr?
Helps metabolize sugars
What is the function of I?
Proper functioning of thyroid
What is the function of Mn?
Maintain proper Ca level in bones
What is the function of Cu?
Involved in production of red blood cells
What is the function of Li?
Used for treatment of manic depression
What does the Carbon-13/carbon-12 ratio tell?
If an elephant is a leaf eater or a grass eater (diet depends on habitat), and identifies sources of illegal ivory
What does the Nitrogen-15/Nitrogen-14 ratio tell?
Higher for carnivores than herbivores (carnivores eat more protein via meat)
What do strontium isotopes identify?
Source of logs in the Pueblo (Anasazi) dwelling in the Chaco Canyon, therefore letting us understand the building practices of the Anasazi
The major question unanswered by Rutherford's work
How the electrons are arranged in an atom nor did he discuss how the electrons moved.
A continuous repeating change or oscillation in matter or in a physical field
The distance between any tow adjacent identical points (crest or trough) or a wave
The number of wavelengths that pass a fixed point in one second
A particle of electromagnetic energy with energy E proportional to the observed frequency of light
Two characteristics that describe a wave
Frequency and wavelength
Equation that relates speed, frequency, and wavelength
Speed (C) = λ (wavelength) x ν (frequency)
Type of relationship that exists between frequency and wavelength
Inverse (indirect) - an increase in wavelength means a decrease in frequency and vice versa
The entire electromagnetic spectrum in order of increasing wavelength
Gamma, X-Ray, UV, Visible, Infrared, Microwave, Radar, Radio
The visible spectrum in order of increasing wavelength
Violet, indigo, blue, green, yellow, orange, red
What range of wavelengths (in nm) is defined as the visible spectrum?
400 nm (violet) to 800 nm (red)
A spectrum that contains light of all wavelengths
A spectrum that contains and shows only specific wavelengths of light
Bohr's theory is based on what atom?
Bohr's model of the atom
What idea was at the center of deBroglie's reasoning?
If light exhibits particle aspects, perhaps particles of matter show characteristics of waves (undetectable waves).
The deBroglie relation equation
λ = Planck's constant/(mass*velocity)
Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle
You cannot know the position and location of an electron simultaneously
Who mathematically defined the probability of finding an electron in a region of space around the nucleus?
What is the probability of finding an electron in a region of space around the nucleus called?
What is Schrodinger's wave function?
What is the speed of light (c)?
c = 3.0 x 10^8 m/s
Type of relationship that exists between energy and frequency
Who stated that light came in particles called quanta or photons and showed that light energy could be through of a particles for certain applications?
Niels Bohr did his work in what year?