Chapter 4 (4.1-4.7) & Chapter 11 (11.1-11.6) Flashcards Preview

Chemistry > Chapter 4 (4.1-4.7) & Chapter 11 (11.1-11.6) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 4 (4.1-4.7) & Chapter 11 (11.1-11.6) Deck (82)
Loading flashcards...
1

The most abundant element in earth's crust, oceans, and atmosphere, and in the human body

Oxygen

2

Top 4 elements on planet earth

Oxygen, silicon, aluminum, iron

3

Top 4 elements in human body

Oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen

4

What year did Dalton come up with his atomic theory?

1808

5

What postulate of Dalton's Atomic Theory corresponds with the Law of Conservation of Mass?

Postulate #2 & #3

6

What postulate of Dalton's Atomic Theory corresponds with the Law of Constant Composition?

Postulate #4

7

What postulate of Dalton's Atomic Theory corresponds with the Law of Conservation of Matter?

Postulate #5

8

Postulate #1 of Dalton's Atomic Theory

All matter is composed of indivisible atoms. An atom is an extremely small particle of matter that retains its identity during chemical reactions.

9

Postulates #2 & #3 of Dalton's Atomic Theory

An element is a type of matter composed of only one kind of atoms, each atom of a given kind having the same properties. (Mass is one such characteristic property), which means: all atoms of a given element are identical, and all atoms of different elements are different.

10

Postulate #4 of Dalton's Atomic Theory

Atoms of one element can combine with atoms of other elements to form compounds. A given compound always has the same relative numbers and types of atoms.

11

Postulate #5 of Dalton's Atomic Theory

Atoms are indivisible in chemical processes. That is, atoms are not created or destroyed in chemical reactions. A chemical reaction simply changes the way the atoms are grouped together.

12

Lavoisier knew of how many different elements?

33

13

Berzelius knew of how many different elements?

45

14

Mendeleev knew of how many different elements?

66

15

How many total elements are known today?

115

16

How many elements are found in nature?

88

17

JJ Thomson did his work in what year?

1897

18

JJ Thomson discovered what?

Electrons (negative particles)

19

JJ Thomson calculated what?

Electron mass to charge ratio (m/q), NOT the individual value of mass and of charge

20

JJ Thomson's experiment

Cathode Ray Experiment

21

Robert Millikan did his work in what year?

1909

22

Robert Millikan's experiment

Oil Drop Experiment

23

Robert Millikan measured what?

Charge on an electron

24

Robert Millikan calculated what?

Mass of an electron (9.109 x 10^-31 kg)

25

Ernest Rutherford did his work in what year?

1911

26

Ernest Rutherford's experiment

Alpha Particle Scattering Experiment

27

Rutherford's "deflecting" of the alpha particles shows what?

The nucleus of the atom is positively charged by positive particles, known as protons.

28

Rutherford's "bouncing back" of the alpha particles shows what?

The atom has a dense center around which electrons travel, known as the nucleus. The nucleus accounts for most of the atom's mass.

29

Rutherford's "passing through" the gold foil of the alpha particles shows what?

Most of the atom is empty space, with the nucleus's diameter being 10^-13 cm and the atom's diameter being 10^-8 cm.

30

Ernest Rutherford's model of the atom

Nuclear Model

31

Rutherford & Chadwick did their work in what year?

1932

32

Rutherford & Chadwick discovered what?

Neutron (neutral particle)

33

The proof of the neutron

Increased atomic mass

34

The role of the neutron

Buffer between positive protons and negative electrons (prevents atom from collapsing on itself)

35

Mass proton = ?

Mass neutron

36

Which subatomic particle has a negligible mass (lighter than the other two)?

Electron

37

What controls the atom's mass?

Nucleus

38

What determines the identity of an atom?

Number of protons

39

What controls the chemical behavior of an atom?

Electron

40

What has a neutral charge?

Neutron

41

The charge proton and the charge electron have what?

Equal magnitude

42

What are isotopes?

Atoms with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons

43

What is the weighted average of the masses of all the available isotopes of an element?

Atomic mass

44

Where does the "weighting" of the atomic mass come from?

The element's fractional abundance

45

What is in the center of a nuclide symbol?

Element symbol

46

What is superscript and to the left of the element symbol in a nuclide symbol?

Mass number (A), represents the number of proton plus the number of neutrons in the nucleus, NEVER a whole number

47

What is subscript and to the left of the element symbol?

Atomic number (Z), represents the number of protons in the nucleus

48

What are the trace elements?

Cr, I, Mn, Cu, Li

49

What is the function of Cr?

Helps metabolize sugars

50

What is the function of I?

Proper functioning of thyroid

51

What is the function of Mn?

Maintain proper Ca level in bones

52

What is the function of Cu?

Involved in production of red blood cells

53

What is the function of Li?

Used for treatment of manic depression

54

What does the Carbon-13/carbon-12 ratio tell?

If an elephant is a leaf eater or a grass eater (diet depends on habitat), and identifies sources of illegal ivory

55

What does the Nitrogen-15/Nitrogen-14 ratio tell?

Higher for carnivores than herbivores (carnivores eat more protein via meat)

56

What do strontium isotopes identify?

Source of logs in the Pueblo (Anasazi) dwelling in the Chaco Canyon, therefore letting us understand the building practices of the Anasazi

57

The major question unanswered by Rutherford's work

How the electrons are arranged in an atom nor did he discuss how the electrons moved.

58

A continuous repeating change or oscillation in matter or in a physical field

Wave

59

The distance between any tow adjacent identical points (crest or trough) or a wave

Wavelength

60

The number of wavelengths that pass a fixed point in one second

Frequency

61

A particle of electromagnetic energy with energy E proportional to the observed frequency of light

Photon

62

Two characteristics that describe a wave

Frequency and wavelength

63

Equation that relates speed, frequency, and wavelength

Speed (C) = λ (wavelength) x ν (frequency)

64

Type of relationship that exists between frequency and wavelength

Inverse (indirect) - an increase in wavelength means a decrease in frequency and vice versa

65

The entire electromagnetic spectrum in order of increasing wavelength

Gamma, X-Ray, UV, Visible, Infrared, Microwave, Radar, Radio

66

The visible spectrum in order of increasing wavelength

Violet, indigo, blue, green, yellow, orange, red

67

What range of wavelengths (in nm) is defined as the visible spectrum?

400 nm (violet) to 800 nm (red)

68

A spectrum that contains light of all wavelengths

Continuous spectrum

69

A spectrum that contains and shows only specific wavelengths of light

Line spectrum

70

Bohr's theory is based on what atom?

Hydrogen

71

Bohr's model of the atom

Planetary model

72

What idea was at the center of deBroglie's reasoning?

If light exhibits particle aspects, perhaps particles of matter show characteristics of waves (undetectable waves).

73

The deBroglie relation equation

λ = Planck's constant/(mass*velocity)

74

Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle

You cannot know the position and location of an electron simultaneously

75

Who mathematically defined the probability of finding an electron in a region of space around the nucleus?

Schrodinger

76

What is the probability of finding an electron in a region of space around the nucleus called?

Ψ^2

77

What is Schrodinger's wave function?

Ψ

78

What is the speed of light (c)?

c = 3.0 x 10^8 m/s

79

Type of relationship that exists between energy and frequency

Direct relationship

80

Who stated that light came in particles called quanta or photons and showed that light energy could be through of a particles for certain applications?

Max Planck

81

Niels Bohr did his work in what year?

1913

82

Erwin Schrodinger did his work in what year?

1926