Flashcards in Chapter 4-5 Study Guide Deck (15)
The mating of individuals who share a biological ancestor; literal: of the same blood
The number of individuals with a given genotype divided by the total number of individuals in the population
The movement of people between areas that are already occupied may serve to introduce new alleles into a population or change allele frequencies
A changeg at a particular point on the DNA molecule; Chromosomal aberrations are changes in the numer or structure of chromosomes
A preference for or avoidance of certain people for physical and social reasons
A form of Sampling Error; The situation in a small population where the allelic frequencies of the F1 generation will differ from those of the parental generation due to sampling error. A chance deviation in the frequency of alleles if the pool is too small and the number of matings are low.
A form of Sampling Error; This happens when a population is reduced to a small size for some reason, such as a natural disaster, causing a reduction in variation within the decending population compared to the original population.
A mechanism that prevents reproduction from occuring between two populations.
Examples include geographical barriers such as a river or mountain range.
A mathematical model of genetic equilibrium:
p(squared) + 2pq + q(squared) = 1
Founder Principle (aka Founder Effect)
A form of Sampling Error; Situation in which a founding population does not represent a random sample of the original population; This may occur when a segment of a population migrates to another area.
A type of natural selection characterized by a generation-after-generation shift in a population in a specific direction, such as toward larger body size.
A type of natural selection characterized by a generation-after-generation shift in a population in the direction of the average (mean) individual, such as average body size.
A type of natural selection characterized by a generation-after-generation shift in the population away from the average individual, such as both larger and smaller body size.
One that occupies a relatively boad ecological niche, that is, it is able to survive under a wide variety of environmental conditions.