Chapter 4-5 Study Guide Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4-5 Study Guide Deck (15)
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1

Consangueneous Mating

The mating of individuals who share a biological ancestor; literal: of the same blood

2

Genotype Frequency

The number of individuals with a given genotype divided by the total number of individuals in the population

3

Gene Flow

The movement of people between areas that are already occupied may serve to introduce new alleles into a population or change allele frequencies

4

Point Mutation

A changeg at a particular point on the DNA molecule; Chromosomal aberrations are changes in the numer or structure of chromosomes

5

Assortive Mating

A preference for or avoidance of certain people for physical and social reasons

6

Genetic Drift

A form of Sampling Error; The situation in a small population where the allelic frequencies of the F1 generation will differ from those of the parental generation due to sampling error. A chance deviation in the frequency of alleles if the pool is too small and the number of matings are low.

7

Population Bottlenecking

A form of Sampling Error; This happens when a population is reduced to a small size for some reason, such as a natural disaster, causing a reduction in variation within the decending population compared to the original population.

8

Reproductive Isolation

A mechanism that prevents reproduction from occuring between two populations.
Examples include geographical barriers such as a river or mountain range.

9

Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium

A mathematical model of genetic equilibrium:
p(squared) + 2pq + q(squared) = 1

10

Founder Principle (aka Founder Effect)

A form of Sampling Error; Situation in which a founding population does not represent a random sample of the original population; This may occur when a segment of a population migrates to another area.

11

Directional Selection

A type of natural selection characterized by a generation-after-generation shift in a population in a specific direction, such as toward larger body size.

12

Stabilizing Selection

A type of natural selection characterized by a generation-after-generation shift in a population in the direction of the average (mean) individual, such as average body size.

13

Disruptive Selection

A type of natural selection characterized by a generation-after-generation shift in the population away from the average individual, such as both larger and smaller body size.

14

Generalized Species

One that occupies a relatively boad ecological niche, that is, it is able to survive under a wide variety of environmental conditions.

15

Specialized Species

One that occupies a relatively narrow ecological niche, that is, it is able to survive only under a relatively narrow set of environmental conditions.