Flashcards in Chapter 4 Deck (52):
What is the correct sequence of biological organization within an organism?
Atom, molecule, organelle, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism
What are heterotrophs?
Organisms that obtain energy by eating nutrients that make up other organisms
What are the four kingdoms in the domain Eukarya?
Protista, fungi, plantae, animalia
In an experimental procedure, what is being measured?
The dependent variable
What are decomposers?
Any organism (examples: bacteria and fungi) that obtains its energy from waste or dead organisms
Who wrote: "On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection"
What class do humans belong to?
Describe Hydrogen bonds.
- weak bonds
- contain a slightly positive hydrogen atom
- contain a slightly negative oxygen atom
- form between water molecules
Describe covalent bonds.
- form between atoms
- helps to fill valence shell
- share one or more pairs of electrons
- are strong bonds
What is indicated if a covalent bond is polar?
One of the atoms must have a partial negative charge
Describe an acid.
Any chemical that adds hydrogen ions to a solution and has a pH between 0 and 7
If a substance has a pH of 8, would it be considered a weak or strong base?
A weak base
What is the primary building block of a nucleic acid?
ATP fuels what process in a cell?
All basic endergonic reactions
- Are required for all exergonic and endergonic reactions
- Lower the activation energy needed to a reaction to begin (acts as a catalyst)
What are the major features of a bacteria cell?
- No nucleus or membrane bound organelles
- Has a cell wall that keeps the cell from bursting
- has a cell membrane
- Is asexual
What is the most prominent organelle in eukaryotic cells?
What is cellular respiration?
The chemical process that cells use to make ATP from the energy stored in glucose.
What does cellular respiration produce?
- Carbon Dioxide
- 36 ATP molecules
What is photosynthesis?
- A process used by autotrophs
- Uses light energy to make glucose from CO2
Where are ribosomes found?
In prokaryotic, plant, and animal cells
Information flows from the gene (DNA) to where?
Onto an RNA copy in order to make proteins
What is transcription?
DNA to RNA
What is translation?
RNA to proteins
Where in the cell does transcription occur?
Inside the nucleus of eukaryotic cells
Where in the cell does translation occur?
In a ribosome found in the cytoplasm
What is a codon?
The three base code that codes for a specific amino acid.
When the codon changes it can change the amino acid that pairs with it leading to a possible mutation
What makes a mutation silent?
When a changed codon still codes for the right amino acid
If DNA changes, will RNA also change?
Yes, all RNA is created from the sequences found on DNA
What are plasmids?
Small circles of DNA
What is the main concept of mitosis?
DNA replicates, cell divides, and makes two identical diploid cells (46 chromosomes each)
What is the main concept of meiosis?
DNA replicates, cell divides twice, and makes four identical haploid cells (23 chromosomes each)
What is the normal number of chromosomes found in a human cell?
46 chromosomes or 23 pairs
What is primate?
The enzyme that builds a short complementary piece of RNA at the start of each DNA segment to be replicated
What is a chromosome?
A discreet package of DNA and associated proteins in eukaryotes
What is a diploid cell?
A cell with two full sets of chromosomes
What is meiosis needed for?
The production of gametes
What is the abbreviation for diploid?
What are autosome?
The chromosomes that do NOT determine whether an individual is male or female
A male donkey that mates with a female horse makes what?
Natural selection involves the evolution of what?
Populations, NOT individuals
What is the purpose of Natural Selection? Does it have a set goal?
- It eliminates different phenotypes at different times
- No, it does not have a goal
Give an example of natural selection
What are recombinant chromosomes? What is it caused by?
Chromosomes that have a mix of paternal and maternal alleles due to crossing over
What is nondisjunction?
When a cells chromosomes don't correctly divide during either division of meiosis, leading to gametes with an abnormal number of chromosomes
Name some conditions caused by nondisjunction
- Trisomy 21
- Turner Syndrome
- Jacobs Syndrome
- Klinefelter Syndrome
What is down syndrome? What is it caused by?
- A condition that results in heart defects and mental impairment (usually chances of this increase with the age of the mother)
- Caused by Trisomy 21 (three chromosomes in the 21st pair)
What DNA nitrogen bases are pyrimidines?
- Cytosine and thymine, have 1 carbon ring structure
What DNA nitrogen bases are purines?
- Adenine and guanine, have 2 carbon rind structure
What is the building block of a nucleic acid?
What is an organism's genome?
All of it's genetic material