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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Deck (52):
1

What is the correct sequence of biological organization within an organism?

Atom, molecule, organelle, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism

2

What are heterotrophs?

Organisms that obtain energy by eating nutrients that make up other organisms

3

What are the four kingdoms in the domain Eukarya?

Protista, fungi, plantae, animalia

4

In an experimental procedure, what is being measured?

The dependent variable

5

What are decomposers?

Any organism (examples: bacteria and fungi) that obtains its energy from waste or dead organisms

6

Who wrote: "On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection"

Charles Darwin

7

What class do humans belong to?

Mammalia

8

Describe Hydrogen bonds.

- weak bonds
- contain a slightly positive hydrogen atom
- contain a slightly negative oxygen atom
- form between water molecules

9

Describe covalent bonds.

- form between atoms
- helps to fill valence shell
- share one or more pairs of electrons
- are strong bonds

10

What is indicated if a covalent bond is polar?

One of the atoms must have a partial negative charge

11

Describe an acid.

Any chemical that adds hydrogen ions to a solution and has a pH between 0 and 7

12

If a substance has a pH of 8, would it be considered a weak or strong base?

A weak base

13

What is the primary building block of a nucleic acid?

Nucleotides

14

ATP fuels what process in a cell?

All basic endergonic reactions

15

Describe enzymes

- Are required for all exergonic and endergonic reactions
- Lower the activation energy needed to a reaction to begin (acts as a catalyst)

16

What are the major features of a bacteria cell?

- No nucleus or membrane bound organelles
- Has a cell wall that keeps the cell from bursting
- has a cell membrane
- Is asexual

17

What is the most prominent organelle in eukaryotic cells?

Nucleus

18

What is cellular respiration?

The chemical process that cells use to make ATP from the energy stored in glucose.

19

What does cellular respiration produce?

- Water
- Carbon Dioxide
- 36 ATP molecules

20

What is photosynthesis?

- A process used by autotrophs
- Uses light energy to make glucose from CO2

21

Where are ribosomes found?

In prokaryotic, plant, and animal cells

22

Information flows from the gene (DNA) to where?

Onto an RNA copy in order to make proteins

23

What is transcription?

DNA to RNA

24

What is translation?

RNA to proteins

25

Where in the cell does transcription occur?

Inside the nucleus of eukaryotic cells

26

Where in the cell does translation occur?

In a ribosome found in the cytoplasm

27

What is a codon?

The three base code that codes for a specific amino acid.
When the codon changes it can change the amino acid that pairs with it leading to a possible mutation

28

What makes a mutation silent?

When a changed codon still codes for the right amino acid

29

If DNA changes, will RNA also change?

Yes, all RNA is created from the sequences found on DNA

30

What are plasmids?

Small circles of DNA

31

What is the main concept of mitosis?

DNA replicates, cell divides, and makes two identical diploid cells (46 chromosomes each)

32

What is the main concept of meiosis?

DNA replicates, cell divides twice, and makes four identical haploid cells (23 chromosomes each)

33

What is the normal number of chromosomes found in a human cell?

46 chromosomes or 23 pairs

34

What is primate?

The enzyme that builds a short complementary piece of RNA at the start of each DNA segment to be replicated

35

What is a chromosome?

A discreet package of DNA and associated proteins in eukaryotes

36

What is a diploid cell?

A cell with two full sets of chromosomes

37

What is meiosis needed for?

The production of gametes

38

What is the abbreviation for diploid?

2n

39

What are autosome?

The chromosomes that do NOT determine whether an individual is male or female

40

A male donkey that mates with a female horse makes what?

A mule

41

Natural selection involves the evolution of what?

Populations, NOT individuals

42

What is the purpose of Natural Selection? Does it have a set goal?

- It eliminates different phenotypes at different times
- No, it does not have a goal

43

Give an example of natural selection

Drug resistance

44

What are recombinant chromosomes? What is it caused by?

Chromosomes that have a mix of paternal and maternal alleles due to crossing over

45

What is nondisjunction?

When a cells chromosomes don't correctly divide during either division of meiosis, leading to gametes with an abnormal number of chromosomes

46

Name some conditions caused by nondisjunction

- Trisomy 21
- Turner Syndrome
- Jacobs Syndrome
- Klinefelter Syndrome

47

What is down syndrome? What is it caused by?

- A condition that results in heart defects and mental impairment (usually chances of this increase with the age of the mother)
- Caused by Trisomy 21 (three chromosomes in the 21st pair)

48

What DNA nitrogen bases are pyrimidines?

- Cytosine and thymine, have 1 carbon ring structure

49

What DNA nitrogen bases are purines?

- Adenine and guanine, have 2 carbon rind structure

50

What is the building block of a nucleic acid?

- Nucleotides

51

What is an organism's genome?

All of it's genetic material

52

Would you find ribose and a sulfur containing group in DNA?

NO