Chapter 4 - Basic Cryptography Concepts Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4 - Basic Cryptography Concepts Deck (28):
1

What is the practice and study of techniques to secure communication in the presence of third parties?

Cryptography

2

What is the practice and study of determining and exploiting weakness in cryptographic techniques?

Cryptanalysis

3

Ensuring that only authorized parties can read a message

Confidentiality

4

Ensuring that any changes to data in transit will be detected and rejected

Data Integrity

5

Ensuring that any messages received were actually sent from the perceived origin

Origin Authentication

6

Ensuring that the original source of a secured message cannot deny having produced the message

Non-repudiation

7

An algorithm for performing encryption and decryption

Cipher

8

A cipher that substitutes one letter for another and retains the letter frequency of the original message

Substitution Cipher

9

A cipher based on substitution that uses multiple substitution alphabets

Polyalphabetic cipher

10

A cipher that rearranges or permutates letters

Transposition Cipher

11

A cipher also known as a Vernam cipher that is a stream cipher that applies the XOR operation to plaintext with a key

One-time pad

12

A mechanism that uses one-way mathematical functions to assure data integrity

Hashing

13

Three most common hash functions

MD5, SHA-1, and SHA-2

14

The process of disguising a message in such a way as to hide its original contents

Encryption

15

An attack where decryption is attempted using all possible keys

Brute-force

16

The effect of changing only a few bits of plaintext causing ciphertext to change completely

Avalanche effect

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Encryption type that uses the same key to encrypt and decrypt data

Symmetric encryption algorithm

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Encryption type that uses different keys to encrypt and decrypt data

Asymmetric encryption algorithm

19

The practice of breaking codes to obtain the meaning of encrypted data

Cryptanalysis

20

An attack where the attacker has only the ciphertext of messages encrypted using the same algorithm with no knowledge of the hidden plain text

Ciphertext-only attack

21

An attack where the attacker has access to the ciphertext of seversal messages, but also knows something about the plain text

Known-plaintext attack

22

An attack where the attacker chooses what data the encryption device encrypts and observes the ciphertext output

Chosen-plaintext attack

23

An attack where the attacker can choose different ciphertext to be decrypted and has access to the decrypted plaintext

Chosen-ciphertext attack

24

A brute-force style attack against hash functions where random input returns one of k equally likely values then by repeating the function with different inputs

Birthday attack

25

An attack where the attacker knows a portion of the plaintext and the corresponding ciphertext

Meet-in-the-middle attack

26

Widely used symmetric encryption algorithms

DES, 3DES, AES, RC4

27

Common asymmetric encryption algorithms

RSA, DSA, EIGamal, and elliptic curve algorithms

28

Method that allows two parties to share information over an untrusted network and mutually compute an identical shared secret that cannot be computed by eavesdroppers

Diffie-Hellman key agreement