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Flashcards in Chapter 4 - Cells Deck (38):
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Cell Theory

Theory that all organisms consist of one or more cells, which are the basic unit of life; all cells come from division of pre-existing cells and all cells pass hereditary material to offspring

1

Cytoplasm

Semifluid substance enclosed by a cell's plasma membrane.

2

Nucleus

Organelle with two membranes that holds a eukaryotic cell's DNA

3

Organelle

Structure that carries a specialized metabolic function inside a cell

4

Plasma membrane

A cell's outermost membrane - semi-permeable

5

Surface-to-volume-ratio

A relationship in which the volume of an object increases with the cube of the diameter, and the surface area increases with the square

6

Ribosome

Organelle of protein synthesis

7

Plasmid

Small circle of DNA in some bacteria and archea

8

Pilus

Protein filament that protects from the surface of some bacteria and archea

9

Nucleoid

Region of cytoplasm where DNA is concentrated inside a bacterium or achaeon

10

Flagellum

Long, slender cellular structure used for motility

11

Cell wall

Semirigid but permeable structure that surrounds the plasma membrane of some cells

12

Biofilm

Community of microorganisms living within a shared mass of slime.

13

Nucleus

Protects and controls access to DNA and has membrane

14

Endoplasmic reticulum

Routing, modifying mew polypeptide chains, synthesizing lipids and has membrane

15

Golgi body

Modifying new polypeptide chains and lipids, sorting and shipping proteins and lipids. Membrane

16

Vesicles

Small, membrane enclosed organelle that's involved in Transporting, sorting, or digesting substances in a cell

17

Vesicles

Transporting, storing, or digesting substances in a cell.

18

Mitochondria

Make ATP to break down glucose

19

Chloroplast

Photosynthesis in plants, some protists

20

Lysosome

Enzyme filled vesicle that functions in Intracellular digestion

21

Peroxisome

Enzyme filled vesicle that breaks down amino acids, fatty acids, and toxic substances

22

Vacuole

Fluid filled organelle that isolates or disposes of waste, debris, or toxic materials.

23

Ribosome

Assembling polypeptide chains. NO MEMBRANE

24

Centriole

Anchor for cytoskeleton. NO MEMBRANE

25

Cytoskeleton

Contributes to cell shape, internal organization, movement. Microtubules, microfilaments, intermediate filaments

26

Rough ER

Modifies proteins made by ribosomes attached to it

27

Smooth ER

Makes lipids, breaks down carbohydrates and fats, inactivates toxins

28

Chromatin

Collective term for DNA molecules together with their associated proteins.

29

Chromosome

A structure that consists of DNA and associated proteins; carries part or all of the cell's genetic information

30

Nuclear envelope

A double membrane that constitutes the outer boundary of the nucleus. Pores in the membrane control which substances can cross.

31

Nucleolus

In a cell nucleus, a dense, irregular shaped region where ribosomal subunits are assembled

32

Nucleoplasm

Viscous fluid enclosed by the nuclear envelope

33

Central vacuole

Fluid-filled vesicle in many plant cells

34

Endomembrane system

Series of interacting organelles(ER, golgi, vesicles)between nucleus and plasma membrane; produces lipids, proteins.

35

Chloroplast

Organelle of photosynthesis in the cells of plants and many protists

36

Mitochondrion

Organelle thar produces ATP by aerobic respiration in eukaryotes

37

Plastid

Category of double-membranes organelle in plants and algal cells. Different types specialize in photosynthesis or storage - chloroplasts and amyloplast