chapter 4- industrial revolution Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in chapter 4- industrial revolution Deck (58):
1

new methods of farming

large scale production
villages grew into towns into cities

2

enclosure movement

one collective farm
process of taking over and consolidating land formerly shared by farmers

3

smelt

separates iron form other materials

4

1st major railroad line

liverpool to manchester
divided britian

5

turnpike

private roads built by entrepreneurs to make money

6

putting out system

where employers would send work for people to do

7

why did canals lose their importance

steam locomotive
canals only go in the direction of the river

8

what is urbanization

shift from rural to urban areas

9

life for industrial middle class
life for working class

almost equivalent to upper class (blessing)
poor conditions (curse)

10

labor union

organization associated of workers

11

luddite movement

workers upset about technology replacing them
destroyed techonology

12

child labor reform laws

not always enforced
took children out of mines and reduced work hours

13

socialism

characterized by social ownership

14

social democracy

government achieved by democratic means

15

location of first textile factory

paw tucket rhode island

16

dynamo

electrical generator

17

assembly line

make same parts
production method that breaks down jobs

18

anesthetic

given to patient before surgery to stop the pain

19

realism

painters painted realistic things

20

impressionism

not real looking paintings
cameras overshadowed realism

21

jethro tull

seed drill

22

thomas newcomen

steam engine powered by coal to pump water
little power

23

eli whitney

cotton gin
separated seeds from raw cotton

24

james hargreaves

spinning jenny

25

richard arkwright

water frame

26

john kay

flying shuttle
enabled weavers to work faster

27

james watt

first steam engine
opened doors to machinery anywhere

28

john wesley

author

29

adam smith

philosopher, ethics, economics

30

thomas malthus

demography
macroeconomics
theory of pop will outgrow supplies

31

david ricardo

labor theory of value
comparative advantage
law of diminishing returns
iron law of wages

32

robert owen
karl mark

social reformer
factory owner
markism

33

william cockerill

first wool spinning machine
stole machinery

34

robert fulton

steamboat

35

henry bessemer

bessemer process
manufacturer of steel

36

alfred nobel

invented dynamite

37

alessandro volta

first battery

38

thomas edison

homes of cement
motion picture camera
lightbulb = lamp

39

nikolaus otto

internal combustion engine

40

karl benz

three wheel car

41

gottlieb daimler

first four wheels without horse

42

henry ford

mass production for middle class people

43

wright brothers

used combustion engine + airplane
only flew for a few seconds

44

samuel morse

morse code
long and short pauses
telegraph

45

alexander graham bell

patented telephone

46

guglielmo marconi

invented radio

47

louis pasteur

if you heat up milk and other substances it kills diseases

48

florence nightingale

first school of nursing
advocated for safe hospitals

49

joseph lister

created antiseptics
sterilized tools = anitseptics

50

john dalton

modern atomic theory

51

dmitri mendeleyev

periodic table

52

charles sarwin

evolution
natural selection

53

lord byron

romantics writer

54

beethoven

deaf
utilized all instruments to produce 9 symphonies

55

charles dickens

oliver twist
realist writer

56

claude monet

impressionism founder
cathedral at rouen

57

van gogh

dreamlike quality
brush strokes

58

industrial revolution

2nd agriculture revolution
new advances in medicine