Chapter 43 Flashcards Preview

BIOL1012 > Chapter 43 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 43 Deck (16):
1

Pathogens

Organisms that cause disease

2

Parasites

Feed on hosts and benefit at their expense

3

Animal Responses to Preventing Pathogens and Parasites

1. Innate Immunity (all animals)
2. Adaptive Immunity (vertebrates only)

4

Innate Immunity

Shared traits recognized by few receptors (*rapid)
1. Barrier defenses:
*skin
*mucous membranes
*secretions
2. Internal defenses
*phagocytic and natural killer cells
*antimicrobial proteins
*inflammatory responses

5

Adaptive Immunity

Recognizes specific traits using many receptors (*slower)
1. Humoral response:
*antibodies defend body fluids
2. Cell-mediated response:
*cytotoxic cells defend body cells

6

Land Plant Responses (2)

1. Hypersensitive response
2. Systemic Acquired Resistence

7

Systemic Acquired Resistance (6)

1. Triggered by the presence of a pathogen (or herbivore)
2. Can prevent spread of infection
3. Dutch elm disease: 'wilt' disease
4. Fungus spread by beetle vector
5. Innate defenses overwhelmed, no antimicrobial defenses or evolutionary history with pathogen
6. Plant blocks xylem to prevent spread of fungi
*rapidly fatal

8

Preventing Predation (3)

1. Behavioural Defences
2. Chemical Defences
3. Physical Defences

9

Behavioral Defenses (4)

1. herds/schools
2. hiding
3. fleeing
4. self-defence (rare)

10

Chemical Defences

toxins, scents, etc.

11

Physical Defences (3)

1. Quills, trichocysts, etc.
2. Colouration
3. Mimicry

12

Coloration

1. Cryptic: hide from predators
2. Aposematic: toxins present

13

Mimicry

1. Batesian: harmless but pretends otherwise
2. Mullerian: unpalatable and resemble eachother

14

Protecting Relatives (4)

1. Some animals serve and protect others (altruistic)
2. Advantages = 'inclusive fitness'
-fitness achieved by helping close relatives
3. 3 Determinates:
-benefit to recipient (B)
-cost to provider (C)
-relatedness of individuals (r)
4. Hamilton's Rule

15

Hamilton's Rule

If rB>C, natural selection favours altruism

16

Defend Resources (3)

1. Protect habitat, mates, food, etc.
2. Interspecific (between) and intraspecific (within)
3. Animals often defend territory or home-range from con-specifics to ensure access to mates and prey