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Flashcards in Chapter 5 Deck (15):
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Allele

An alternate form that a gene may have for a single trait; can be dominant.

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Dominant

Describes a trait that covers over, or dominates, another form of that trait.

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Genetic Engineering

Biological and chemical methods to change the arrangement of a gene's DNA to improve crop production, produce large volumes medicine, and change how cells perform their normal functions.

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Genetics

The study of how traits are inherited through the actions of alleles.

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Genotype

The genetic makeup of an organism.

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Heredity

The passing of traits from parent to offspring.

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Heterozygous

Describes an organism with two different alleles for a trait.

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Homozygous

Describes an organisms with two alleles that are the same for a trait.

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Hybrid

An offspring that was given different genetic information for a trait from each parent.

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Incomplete Dominance

Production of phenotype that is intermediate between the two homozygous parents.

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Phenotype

Outward physical appearance and behavior of an organism as a result of its genotype.

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Polygenic Inheritance

Occurs when a group of gene pairs acts together and produces a specific trait, such as a human eye color, skin color, or height.

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Punnett Square

A tool to predict the probability of certain traits in offspring that shows the different ways alleles can combine.

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Recessive

Describes a trait that is covered over, or dominated, by another form of that trait and seems to disappear.

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Sex-linked Gene

An allele inherited on a sex chromosomes and that can cause human genetic disorders such as color blindness and hemophilia.