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Flashcards in Chapter 5 Deck (37):
1

What are three types of muscle contractions?

Isometric
Dynamic
Isokinetic

2

What is an isometric contaction

There is no change in muscle length
You are pushong an immovable object

3

What is dynamic contraction?

It can be eccentric or concentric
It is the force produce to move

4

What happens in Concentric contraction?

It is refered to as positice phase or positive rrsistance training
Muscle shortens
Concentric strength is the weakest levrl of strength and is the ability of the muscle to raise a weigt from a position if full extension to on of full contraction
Eg hamstring-knee joint during leg curl

5

What are three types of muscle contraction?

Isometric
Dynamic
Isokinetic

6

Name 6 characteristics of isometric exercises

Increase in muscle tension
2. No change in muscle length
3. Resistance is equal or greater than the force applied
4. Usually occurs when a weak muscle works against a stronger muscle or when the muscle is working against a heavy load that is too heavy to create movement.
5. Training isometric exercise will strengthen muscle at the angle where isometric force is produced
6. Must be performed at all angles to increase strength
7. Effective on exercising injured joints by staying away from painful angles

7

What is dynamic contraction?

Force that can be concentric or eccentric

8

What is concentric contraction?

Referred to as positive phase or positive resistance training
Muscle shortens
Concentric strength is the weakest level of strength and is the ability of the muscle to raise a weight from a position of full extension to one of full contraction eg. Hamstring-knee joint during leg curl.

9

What is constant resistance?

1.The resistance force determines the muscle force
2. The more resistance used, the more forced produced and vice versa
3. THE FORCE GENERATED BY THE MUSCLE IS DYNAMIC AND CHANGED THROUGH THE RANGE OF MOTION
4. Resistance occurs through both the concentric and eccentric phase
6.strength training with barbells or dumbbells is constant resistance becausethe weightload or resostance does not change throughout the entire movement
Other exercises: calisthenics, push ups, sit ups, cjin upd and bar dips
Leverage not same d/t leverage variation

10

What are three types of strength training equipment?

1.Dynamic variable resistance
2. Dynamic progressive resistance
3. Strength curve

11

Name four important points for dynamic variable resistance?

1.Weight stack machine have variable resistance

2.Weight load cjanges automAticallu during movement
3. The muscle generates different forces throughout the ROM
4. Less resistance in weaker phase... more resistance in stronger phase
5 alter Resistance with: cams, pneumatics,mechanical breaks and linkage
6. The shape of cam affects the machine resistance
Some equipment have
Mechanical linkage to vary resistance
As weight is lifted the lever length and position of the linkage change
7. Some systems use pneumatic cylinders and air or oil pressure to provide accommodating
Resistance through rom

12

What are disadvanges of variable resistance equipment?

Acceleration can occur through range of motion. The fly away phenomenom... may result kn injury

13

True or false it is important that the machine is is adjusted to fit the participants body type to minimize risks and maximize benefit. The machine must fit the person

True

14

Name four points on progressive resistance.

Provide more résistance when bent over or stretched
The muscle is capable of generating different fotces through out ROM
THE RESISTANCE PROGRESSES ASTHE DEVICE IS MORE STRETCHED OR BENT
COST EFFECTIVE, easy to transport compared to dumbbells pr weight plates.

15

What is strength curve ?joint angle and muscle angle influence the amount of torque that can be generated to the muscle

Each joint has a specific strength curve

The sticking point is where the torque
Generated by load is almost overpowering the torque generated by the muscle. It is the most difficult part of the lift
Movement is easier before and after this point.
The maximum amount of weight a person can be lifted through the sticking point.

16

What are advantages of the Isokinetic exercises?

1. Accomadates 100% of the tension generated by the muscle with the control for speed allowing the exercise to be accurately
Performed during fast movement
2. Maximum resistance can occur theough full range of motion of a miscle regardless of speed of contraction
3.effective in rehabilitating injured limbs and measuring the strength, endurance and power out put

17

What is a dis advantage of iso kinetic exercise

It is usually expensive and usually confined to sports laboratories and medical setting

18

Iso kinetic

Machine good at stabilization and rehab
Does not work stabilizers
Leg curl good fir scl

19

What are free weights?

They isolate specific muscle groups together and form the center of equipement

20

Name advantages if free weights?

1.Mobile and versatile
2. Effective in developing smaller synergistic muscles from balancing weight
3. Movement closely matches bio mechanical action associated with sport skills

21

What are Disadvantages of free weights

1.Plates snd collars must be manually adjusted to increase and decrease resistance'
2. Require body management skill and can be difficult to isolate certain muscles
3. Ballistic movements if propee form is not allowed.

22

Name 6 advantages of machines?

1.Effective to isolate muscles
2.Safety spotter not necessary
Faster work outs possible
Can perform exercise not duplicated on barbell or dumb bells example: lat pull down
Easier for beginners to remember.

23

What are disadvantage of machines?

Expensive
Specific need a variety of machine for all muscle groups
Difficult to train for speed d/t machine construction
Resostance move through a predetermined oath
Built for average size person

24

Weight training is mot designed for people with disabilities

Adaptations such as velcro straps for better grip
Therabands for resistance
Participants should use correct form in a slow controlled way

25

This exercise is east to implement! No eqipment necessary
Choice of speficic angles
Disadvantage no training of FULL ROM
SPECIFIC POINT TENSION MAY contribute to high bp

For dynamic constant resistance you have : concentric and eccentric movement

26

Dcr- whay is the main indication?

Home training program
Equpiment inexpense

27

Dynamic Constant resistance disadvantage?

Ineffective matching of muscle and load torque does not accommodate pain

28

DYNAMIC variable resistance ADVANTAGE?

c/e main indicatmgi

29

What are advantages I of dynamic variable resistance?
A disadvantage?

C/e cannot be avoided
Does not accommodate pain
Lack of speed control

30

What is an example of isometric exercise?

Pushing against an immovable object like a wall

31

What is an example of a dynamic variable resistance?

Free weights
Cable weights

32

What is an example of dynamic variable resistance?

Cam
Pneumatic
Mechanical link machinees

33

What is the limitation of isokinetic exercise?

No load at end of movement
Concentric

34

This exercise is good with high and low speeds... it you want muscle training for good muscle strength?

Isokinenetic

35

Isokinetic exercise require what type of machines?

Specialized ine

36

List four characteristics of a concentric contraction?

Muscle shortens
Positive phase
Weakest level of strength
Ability to raise weight from full extension to contraction

37

4 characteristics of eccentric contraction

Muscle lengthens
Negative phase
Greatest gain in strength
Negative resistance training lowering of weight under control