Chapter 5.1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 5.1 Deck (43):
1

How long does it take for a baby snake to shed its skin

Twice a month

2

What is the boulengerula taitanus

A leg less underground amphibian found in kenya

3

What is special about boulengerula taitanus

They peel and eat their momas skin

4

Describe the moma boulengerula taitanus

The skin is rich in fat
Loses 14% body weight

5

Describe the boulengerula taitanus teeth

Spoon shaped: scraping
Spike points: piercing skin
Grappling hooks: staying attached to the mom

6

How does the new skin grow

Cell division

7

What is cell division controlled by

Specialized proteins in the nucleus

8

When do your cells start dividing

Begin as fertilized eggs

9

What happens after puberty

Body growth slows
Still continued to replace cells like skin cell, stomach cells, and intestinal cells

10

Which cells right not continue to Divide when you're an adult

Muscle and nerve cells but they still continue functions for survival

11

What is the life span of a skin cell

20 days

12

What is the life span of a liver cell

200 days

13

What is the life span of a brain cell

30-50 years

14

What is the life span on red blood cells

120 days

15

What is the life span of stomach lining cells

2 days

16

What is the life span of intestinal lining cells

3 days

17

What are the 3 stages of cell cycle

Interphase
Mitosis
Cytokinesis

18

Give an example for interphase

Cell in stomach lining making and real easing enzymes that digest food

19

What percent of dust at home is flakes of skin

70%

20

What is the job of interphase

Cells carry functions necessary for survival and cells that divide prepare for reproduction

21

What is mitosis

-Divides the duplicated contents on cells nucleus into two
-Shortest step
-Two daughter nuclei with same number and kinds of chromosomes, identical to parent

22

What is cytokinesis

Separates two nuclei and cell contents into 2 daughter cells

23

Describe the first phase of interphase

Growth and preparation
-Cell gets bigger
-Makes proteins and molecules for cell function
-Some organelles begin to duplicate

24

How long does it take for a snake to shed its skin

3-4 times a year

24

Describe the second phase of interphase



Replication
-Cell copies 3 billion base pairs DNA in nucleus so it has 2 sets of DNA
-DNA unwinds, ladder breaks apart and each side becomes a pattern or template on new side formed
-Resultes in two DNA molecules that have same sequence of base original DNA have
-Idenital copy of gene

25

Describe the last step of interphase


Continued Growth and Preparation
-Continues to grow
-Makes proteins that will be formed after cytokinesis
-Chromatin in loosely coiled form so DNA can be copied to RNA so proteins made for cell division
-Mitochondrion, chloroplasts duplicated

26

What is the centromere

-Joins sister chromatids
-Organize spindle fibres during mitosis

27

What is the sister chromatids

Ends of chromosome like the
X the points ya

28

What are the phases of mitosis

Early prophase
Late prophase
Metaphase
Anaphase
Telophase

29

Describe early prophase

-Replicated chromosomes coil into X shape
-Nucleolus disappears, nuclear membrane begins to break down
-Spindle fibres stretch access cell from centrioles that have moved opposite ends of cell

30

Describe late prophase

-Spindle fibres complete forming
-Chromosomes attach spindle fibres to centromere
-Nuclear membrane disappears

31

Describe metaphase

-Spindle fibres tug chromosomes into middle of cell

32

Describe anaphase

-Spindle fibres pulls centromeres apart allowing sister chromatids to move opposite poles of cell
-once seperated, sister chromatids is chromosomes

33

Describe telophase

-Complete set chromosomes at each pole
-Spindle fibres disappears
-Nucleur membrane formed around each set chromosomes
-Nucleolus appears in each nucleus

34

What do checkpoints in cells do

-Special proteins at check points monitor cell activity and info to the nucleus

35

When will cells NOT divide

-not enough nutrients for cell growth
-DNA in nucleus has not been replicated
-DNA damaged
-chromosomes haven't attached to spindle fibres in metaphase
-chromosomes haven't moved to poles in anaphase

36

What happens if a mutation occurs in gene producing instructions for checkpoint protein

Cell cycle control lost, cell may divide uncontrollably

37

What is cancer

-Certain disease that is uncontrolled division
-Do not respond to message from nearby cells so they begin to grow multiple layers forming a tumour

38

Describe cancer cells

-large abnormal nuclei, result in cell division before checkpoints don't function and chromosomes divide incorrectly
-not specialized, do not function as part of your body because doesn't make that protein for that cell

39

How does a tumour form

-cancer cells release chemicals to attract nearby blood vessels that branch out in tumour and deliver nutrients
-nutrients feed tumour and divide more quickly

40

How can cancer spread to other parts of your body

If some tumour cells break away and blood vessels carry to a new location where they divide and form a new tumour

41

What is a potential treatment for cancer

Drugs that block cell division in cancer cell preventing a tumour forming

42

Describe cytokinesis

-Seperates two nucleus into daughter cells
-Identical to parent cell
-Animal cell: cell membrane pinch together to divide cell cytoplasm and organelles