Chapter 52: Ecology and the Biosphere Flashcards Preview

Biology 170 > Chapter 52: Ecology and the Biosphere > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 52: Ecology and the Biosphere Deck (29)
Loading flashcards...
1

Ecology (def.)

Science that studies the interactions among organisms and their environment

2

Relationship between ecology and evolution?

- Ecologists see products of interaction ver time

3

Compare/Contrast Evolutionary vs. Ecological Time

- Ecological time faster than evolutionary
- Interactions take place on ecological time scale
- Adaptation takes place on evolutionary time scale

4

How do ecologists study ecological questions?

- Observation based
- Use experiments
- Ask questions related to each of the three components of definition of ecology

5

Factors that influence distribution of individuals

- Dispersal
- Habitat selection
- Biotic factors
- Abiotic factors

6

Biotic factors (def.)

Living factors

7

Abiotic factors (def.)

Factors that are nonliving (temperature, water, sunlight)

8

Questions an ecologist might ask to understand what limits distribution?

- Where are they distributed over the region?
- Why are they distributed over the region that way?

9

What is the most important factor that limits an organism's distribution?

Climate

10

Dispersal (def.)

- Organism's ability to move may limit their distribution

11

Method to study what affects dispersal?

- Use of species transplants to determine dispersal limits

12

Habitat selection

- Species might choose to live in a particular area simply because of a preference

13

Biotic factor examples

Predation and competition

14

Abiotic factor examples

Temperature, water, sunlight, wind, salinity

15

Factors that determine climate

- Temperature
- Precipitation
- Sunlight
- Wind

16

Factors that determine global climate patterns?

- Latitudinal variation in intensity of sunlight
- Seasonal variation in intensity of sunlight
- Variation in sunlight causes patterns in air circulation and precipitation

17

How does air move?

- Warms and rises (can hold moisture)
- As air rises, pressure decrease, air cools
- Cool air loses moisture

18

Sunlight intensity over the globe and by season?

- Intensity at equator is highest
- Neither pole is tilted toward the sun

19

Seasonal variation is greatest at...?

- 90˚N and S latitude

20

Wind and ocean currents occur how?

- Air in motion plus Earth's rotation creates global wind patterns
- Wind patterns create great ocean conveyor belt

21

Regional, local factors that affect climate?

- Oceans and large lakes moderate coastal climate
- Mountains

22

Large bodies regulate climate how?

- Water evaporates over land during day, at night returns to the ocean

23

How mountains affect climate?

- Sunlight
- Temperature
- Influence wind patterns, rain pattens
- Aspect (north vs. south facing)

24

Microclimate (def.)

Determined by fine-scale differences in the environment that affect light and wind patterns

25

Biome (def.)

Combination of species and climates determine the biome; major aquatic or terrestrial life zones on Earth

26

Main factors that determine biomes

- Precipitation vs. Temperature

27

Examples of biomes and their characteristics?

- Savanna: Grassland, some trees
- Desert: Restricted population
- Tundra: poorly productive areas, permafrost, small plants
- Chaparral: Mediterranean areas; just north of equator

28

What biome is Bozeman?

Northern coniferous forest

29

Ecotone (def.)

- Region of transition between two biological communities