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Flashcards in Chapter 6 Deck (25):
1

Approximately how many Americans rely on the Internet when choosing a school for themselves or a child?
a. 10 million c. 21 million
b. 17 million d. 28 million

B: The PEW Internet & American Life Project found that approximately 17 million Americans rely on the Internet when choosing a school for themselves or a child. In general, a total of 21 million Americans rely on the Internet in a crucial or important way for career training.

2

A nurse manager tells the staff that there will be an increasing use of nursing informatics in the clinical setting. The nurse manager explains that, according to the 1998 definition formulated by the International Medical Informatics Association-Nursing Informatics (IMIA-NI), nursing informatics is defined as:
a. a formal educational program in nursing informatics or a graduate program with a nursing informatics focus by an institution of higher learning.
b. differentiated practice representative of the specialty and recognized for certification by at least one organized body through external testing.
c. the integration of nursing, its information, and information management with information processing and communication technology to support the health of people worldwide.
d. a designation applied to any nurses who have successfully educated themselves using formal and/or informal resources and taken a credentialing test for specialty designation.

C: The IMIA-NI’s definition of nursing informatics is the integration of nursing, its information, and information management with information processing and communication technology to support the health of people worldwide.

3

Nurses use informatics in order to:
a. play computer games for entertainment.
b. foster collaboration among nurses and others who are interested in nursing informatics.
c. provide management training for nurses interested in communication technology.
d. substitution, innovation, and transformation of patient care, nursing administration, or educational preparation.

D: Nurses use informatics for substitution, innovation, transformation of patient care, nursing administration, or educational preparation.

4

The Informatics Nurse Specialist is expected to:
a. demonstrate the competencies enumerated in the Standard of Practice for Nursing Informatics, as outlined by the ANA.
b. serve as the department’s IT go-to person.
c. have a bachelor’s degree in nursing informatics.
d. share knowledge and best practices of informatics by teaching seminars and holding training sessions for hospital employees.

A: The Informatics Nurse Specialist is expected to demonstrate the competencies enumerated in the Standard of Practice for Nursing Informatics as outlined by the ANA (2008).

5

Interoperability is:
a. the success of the health team in working cooperatively to address patient health care needs.
b. hospital management’s means of communicating directives and protocols to staff.
c. the integration of differing health care systems, such as paper charts, point-of-care data entry, PDAs, and medication orders, to all function together to increase patient health and reduce provider error.
d. the ability of a computer to connect with other computers in various settings in a secure, accurate, and efficient way without special effort on the part of the user and without any restricted access or implementation.

D: Interoperability refers to the ability of a computer to connect with other computers in various settings in a secure, accurate, and efficient way without special effort on the part of the user and without any restricted access or implementation.

6

Many industries have reaped the benefits of their Information Technology (IT) investments. The adoption and diffusion of information systems in the health care arena has been growing:
a. more slowly. c. twice as fast.
b. more quickly. d. about the same.

A: According to Menachemi, Randeree, Burke, and Ford (2008), the adoption and diffusion of information systems in the health care arena has been growing more slowly than in other sectors.

7

The position of National Coordinator for Health Information Technology was created through an Executive Order in:
a. 2000. c. 2004.
b. 2001. d. 2010.

C: The position of National Coordinator for Health Information Technology was created through an Executive Order in 2004.

8

A nurse is helping implement the recommendations of the Institute of Medicine's (IOM) sweeping quality initiative for reform of the health care system. The nurse is focusing on the recommendation that requires care to be based on continuous healing relationships. In order to do this, which of the following should occur?
a. Access to care should be provided over the Internet, by telephone, and by other means in addition to face-to-face visits
b. Care should be based on the best available scientific knowledge and not vary illogically from clinician to clinician
c. Information should be available to patients and their families that allows them to make informed decisions
d. Health system should not waste resources or patient time

A: Care based on continuous healing relationships is characterized by access to care 24 hours a day, every day, provided over the Internet, by telephone, and by other means in addition to face-to-face visits. The recommendation for evidence-based decision making is characterized by receiving care based on the best available scientific knowledge. The need for transparency implies health care systems should make information available to patients and their families. Continuous decrease in waste is characterized by the health system’s not wasting resources or patient’s time.

9

Which group offered the following definition of nursing informatics? “Nursing informatics is a specialty that integrates nursing science, computer science, and information science to manage and communicate data, information, knowledge and wisdom into nursing practice.”
a. AMIA c. NSNA
b. ANCC d. ANA

D: This is the ANA’s definition of nursing informatics.

10

The Informatics Nurse Specialist functions in the role of:
a. entrepreneur, patient advocate, ethics committee member, and lobbyist.
b. policy developer, patient advocate, social worker, and researcher.
c. project manager, consultant, educator, and researcher.
d. development supporter, physician advocate, ethics committee member, and lobbyist.

C: The Informatics Nurse Specialist may function in the role of project manager, consultant, educator, researcher, development supporter, policy developer, and entrepreneur.

11

QSEN is an initiative focused on:
a. computer literacy for nurses.
b. reform in nursing education in the areas of quality and safety.
c. statistics for nurses working in environmental health care.
d. improving patient satisfaction in the areas of safety and wellness.

B: Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) was developed as part of a Robert Wood Johnson-funded project designed to facilitate reform in nursing education in the areas of quality and safety. QSEN is a comprehensive resource for quality and safety education for nurses.

12

An RN asks a nurse educator how long graduate studies in nursing informatics have been available. The nurse educator explains that the first master's programs in nursing informatics was established at the University of Maryland in:
a. 1989. c. 1994.
b. 1992. d. 1998.

A: The first master’s program in nursing informatics (NI) was established at the University of Maryland in 1989, followed by a doctoral program in 1992.

13

A nurse wishes to gain more knowledge about informatics in an informal manner. The nurse understands that this can be done through:
a. seminars and scholarly journals.
b. master’s program in nursing informatics.
c. doctoral program in nursing informatics.
d. bachelor’s program in computer technology.

A: Seminars, annual conferences, joining nursing informatics groups, and subscribing to scholarly journals are all informal ways to pursue education in nursing informatics. Master’s, doctoral, and MBA programs describe formal education.

14

A nurse returns to practice after 15 years in retirement. Her life savings became depleted due to several poor investments and an Internet scam. It has been several years since the nurse worked on a patient care unit. During orientation the nurse asked the instructor, “Are patient charts still kept at the front desk?” The best response by the instructor would be that the hospital has integrated informatics into patient care and they now use:
a. CIS. c. FAX.
b. EHR. d. e-mail.

B: The instructor would inform the nurse that the hospital now uses electronic health records (EHR). Clinical information systems (CIS) consist of a collection of software programs and associated hardware that supports the entry, retrieval, update, and analysis of patient care information and associated clinical information related to patient care. FAX machines and e-mail are not patient records but tools for communicating.

15

A client is concerned about whether private matters shared between the client and the health care workers will be disclosed to others. The nurse understands that the act of limiting disclosure of a client’s private matters is known as which of the following?
a. Privacy c. Confidentiality
b. Security d. Identifier

C: Confidentiality refers to the act of limiting disclosure of private matters. Privacy refers to the right of an individual to keep information about oneself from being disclosed to anyone. Security refers to the means to control access and protect information from accidental or intentional disclosure to unauthorized persons and the alteration, destruction, or loss of information. A person’s computer identity can be determined by many types of data in addition to common identifiers such as name and number.

16

A student nurse asks a nurse educator about the beginnings of modern computing. The nurse educator informs the student that the first phase (Phase I) of modern computing is considered which of the following?
a. PC era c. Mainframe era
b. UC era d. Calm technology

C: Phase I of the history of modern computing is called the mainframe era, in which many people shared one computer. Phase II in modern computing is the PC era, which is characterized by one person to one computer. Phase III is the era of ubiquitous computing (UC), in which there will be many computers for each person. This era will result in calm technology in which computers do not cause stress and anxiety for the user.

17

A new treatment modality involves putting people inside a computer-generated world. The nurse understands that this is considered:
a. ubiquitous computing. c. personal computing.
b. virtual reality. d. smart toilet.

B: Virtual reality puts people inside a computer-generated world, and ubiquitous computing puts the computer out in the world with people. Personal computing is characterized by one person to one computer. Smart toilet is ubiquitous computing that includes an online, real-time health monitoring system.

18

The PHR is maintained by the:
a. hospital. c. physician.
b. nurse. d. patient.

D: A PHR is typically a health record that is initiated and maintained by an individual. An ideal PHR would provide a complete and accurate summary of the health and medical history of an individual by gathering data from many sources and making this information accessible online to anyone who has the necessary electronic credentials to view the information.

19

What type of information is contained in a PHR?
a. Family history, address, social security number, age
b. Immunizations, allergies, siblings, parents
c. Insurance, social security number, age, address
d. Medications, allergies, lab results, insurance

D: PHRs provide an avenue for patients to track their personal health information such as doctor's visits, medications, allergies, lab results, surgeries, immunization records, chronic illnesses, hospitalizations, family history, insurance, medical directives, and vision and dental information.

20

A nurse looking for a good interfacing approach with an Internet-positive patient would choose which of the following approaches?
a. Read Internet information promptly c. React in a positive manner
b. Refuse Internet material d. React in a derogatory manner

C: Approach Internet-positive patients in the following manner: react positively, inform patients that time constraints will not permit you to read the information on the spot, never refuse Internet material, and never be derogatory.

21

A nursing student is interested in determining which authors have completed research on the concept of empathy. For the most reliable information, the student should do which of the following?
a. Ask the teacher
b. Conduct a search using CINAHL or MEDLINE
c. Ask the nurses in the clinical area
d. Ask a friend who graduated from nursing school 20 years ago

B: The nursing student should conduct a search using CINAHL or MEDLINE. Scientific and research information usually require literature resources that can be found in databases such as CINAHL or MEDLINE. Asking a teacher, nurses in the clinical area, or a friend will most likely only provide limited information.

22

PHR refers to:
a. physician hotline resource. c. personal health record.
b. patient health referral. d. personnel healthcare recruitment.

C: Personal Health Record (PHR) is "...a universally accessible, layperson comprehensible, lifelong tool for managing relevant health information, promoting health maintenance and assisting with chronic disease management via an interactive, common data set of electronic health information and e-health tools.”

23

A nurse conducting a review of the literature wants to narrow the search to traditional medical viewpoints on the topic. The nurse should do which of the following?
a. Refine the Internet search with filters
b. Only visit libraries in research universities
c. Ask the librarian what the traditional views are
d. Read every article published over the last 20 years

A: The nurse should refine the Internet search with filters. Filtering is mechanically blocking Internet content from being retrieved through the identification of key words and phrases.

24

A nurse educator evaluates the students’ understanding of the benefits related to the use of electronic health records (EHR). Which response by a student would indicate that further teaching is required?
a. Consumer empowerment
b. Information becomes available to the public
c. Better access to health information
d. Complete and accurate health information

B: There are three main benefits to health providers and patients when the EHR is used. These benefits include consumer empowerment, better access to health information, and complete and accurate health information. Information does not become available to the public because this would be a violation of HIPAA.

25

Which of the following organizations was created to develop and implement a national strategy for health care quality measurement and reporting?
a. Leap Frog Group c. National Institute of Health
b. National Quality Forum d. American Nurses Credentialing Center

B: The National Quality Forum was created to develop and implement a national strategy for health care quality measurement and reporting. The Leap Frog Group works with employer groups to encourage transparency and easy access to health care information. The American Nurses Credentialing Center certifies nurses for specialty areas, and the National Institute of Health funds biomedical research.