Chapter 6 - Diseases of the Immune System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 6 - Diseases of the Immune System Deck (18):
1

Components of innate immunity

Epithelial barriers
Phagocytes (mainly neutrophils and macrophages)
Monocytes
Dendritic cells
Natural killer cells (lymphoid origin)
Other cells (mast cells, epithelial cells, endothelial cells)
Innate lymphoid cells
Complement proteins

2

Components of adaptive immunity

B cells
T cells
Antibodies

3

Microbial structures that are shared among related microbes and are often essential for infectivity

Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)

4

Molecules released by injured and necrotic cells

Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs)

5

Collectively, cellular receptors that recognize PAMPs and DAMPs

Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs)

6

Location of PRRs

Plasma membrane receptors
Endosomal receptors
Cytosolic receptors

7

Toll-like receptors (TLRs)

Founding member, Toll, found in Drosophila
10 members in the TLR family
Present in PLASMA MEMBRANE and ENDOSOME

8

TLRs activates 2 prominent transcription factors:

NF-KB - synthesizes and secretes cytokines and adhesion molecules

Interferon regulatory proteins - produces type I interferons (antiviral cytokines)

9

Germline loss-of-function of TLRs

Severe immunodeficiency syndromes

10

NOD-like receptors

Founding member, NOD2
Found in the CYTOSOL
Recognizes K+ efflux, uric acid, ATP release, ROS
Activates inflammasome, which activates caspase-1 to cleave IL-1 to form its active form and cause a systemic response

11

Germline gain-of-function of NLRs

Increase intracelllular lipids and cholesterol

Autoinflammatory syndromes

Obesity-associated type 2 diabetes
Atherosclerosis

12

Expressed on PLASMA MEMBRANE of macrophages and dendritic cells to detect fungal glycans and elicit inflammatory response to fungi

C-type Lectin Receptor (CLRs)

13

Expressed in the CYTOSOL of most cell types to detect nucleic acids of viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm of infected cells

RIG-like Receptors (RLRs)
(RIG-I, founding member)

14

Expressed on PLASMA MEMBRANE of neutrophils, macrophages, and most leukocytes recognize bacterial peptides containing, N-FORMYLMETHIONINE RESIDUES

G protein-coupled Receptors

15

Expressed on PLASMA MEMBRANE to recognize terminal sugars (terminal mannose residues, unlike terminal glycoproteins)

Mannose receptors

16

Reactions of Innate Immunity

Inflammation
Antiviral defense (via type I interferons)
Stimulate Adaptive Immunity

17

2 receptors mainly used in Adaptive Immunity

T-cell receptors
Antibodies

18

2 types of Adaptive Immunity

Humoral immunity (against extracellular microbes and toxins)
Cellular immunity (against intracellular microbes)