Flashcards in Chapter 6 - Models For Explaining Human Memory Deck (18):
Memory is often defined as the processing, storage and retrieval of information acquired through learning.
Encoding is the process of converting information into a useable form so that it can be represented and stored in memory.
What does Storage mean?
Storage is the retention of information in memory over time.
Retrieval is the process of locating and recovering the stored information from memory so that we are consciously aware of it.
What is Atkinson & Shiffrin's multi-store model of memory?
The Atkinson & Shiffrin's multi-store model of working memory represents memory as consisting of three separate components called the sensory register, the short-term store & the long-term store.
What is a structural feature?
A structural feature are permanent, built in fixed features of memory that do not vary from one situation from another.
What are control processes?
Control processes are selected and used by each individual and may vary in different situations. They are under the conscious control of an individual and which control process is used depends on what the individual does.
What is sensory memory?
Sensory memory is the entry point of memory where new incoming sensory information is stored for a very brief period of time.
Make a comparison between iconic and echoic memory
Iconic memory describes the visual sensory memory, from incoming visual information, its duration is usually 0.2-0.4 second and its capacity is unlimited
Echoic memory describes the auditory sensory memory, from incoming auditory information, its duration is typically for 3-4 seconds and its capacity is unlimited.
Describe Short-Term Memory
Short-term memory (STM) is a memory system with limited storage capacity in which information is stored for a relatively short time, unless renewed in some way.
Its duration is 12-18 seconds and through rehearsal it can linger in the STM for up to 30 seconds.
Its capacity is 7+-2 items (5-9)
What is Working Memory?
Working memory emphasises the part of memory where information is temporarily held and actively 'worked on' as we undertake our everyday tasks.
Working memory is consciously in use from sensory and long term memory information.
Compare Elaborative and Maintenance rehearsal
Maintenance rehearsal involves repeating information vocally or sub-vocally over and over again so it can be retained.
Elaborative rehearsal involves linking new information in a meaningful way with information that is already stored in long term memory to aid in its storage and retrieval.
Elaborative and maintenance rehearsal is used to increase the duration of information in STM for longer than its 18-30 seconds
Define the serial position effect, and explain the different effects
serial position effect is a finding that free recall is better for the beginning and end of the list than the middle of the list.
The Primacy Effect- describes that recall is superior for items at the beginning of the list. they have had enough time to be rehearsed.
The Recency Effect- describes that recall is superior for items at the end of the list.- they are remembered as they are still in STM
The items in the middle of the list are most likely to be forgotten due to lack of rehearsal time and the items of the list would have exceeded their time in STM.
What is Chunking?
chunking is the grouping or packing of separate bits of information into a larger single unit or chunk of information.
What is Baddeley and Hitch's model of working memory?
Baddeley and Hitch's model of working memory describes the structure and function of working memory in terms of three components called the phonological loop, visuo-spatial sketchpad and central executive.
What is the role of the Phonological loop?
the Phonological loop temporarily stores a limited amount of verbal speech- like information for a brief time.
Describe the Visuo-spatial sketchpad
The Visuo-spatial sketchpad temporarily stores a limited amount of visual and spatial information for a brief time.