Chapter 6: Nutrition Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 6: Nutrition Deck (32)
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1
Q

Essential Nutrients

A

• Substances used by body to build, maintain, and repair tissues and regulate body funtions, they must be obtained from foods or supplements

2
Q

Kilocalorie

A

• Amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1kilo of water by 1 degree centigrade

3
Q

Electrolytes

A

• Mineral components that carry electrical charges and conduct nerve impulses

4
Q

Simple Carbohydrates

A

• Easily digestible carbohydrates composed of one or two units of sugar

5
Q

Glycogen

A

• Complex carbohydrate form in which glucose is stored in the liver and muscles

6
Q

Complex Carbohydrates

A

• Composed of multiple sugar units and that must be broken down further before they can be used by the body

7
Q

Starches

A

• Complex Carbohydrates found in grains, vegetables, and some fruits

8
Q

Dietary Fiber

A

• Complex Carbohydrate found in plants that cannot be broken down in the digestive tract

9
Q

Functional Fiber

A

Natural or synthetic fiber that has been added to food

10
Q

Total Fiber

A

Combined amount of dietary fiber and functional fiber in a food

11
Q

Protein

A

Essential nutrient made up of amino acids, needed to build and maintain muscles, bones, and other body tissues

12
Q

Essential Amino Acids

A

Amino acids that the body cannot produce on its own

13
Q

Complete Proteins

A

Proteins composed of ample amounts of all the essential amino acids

14
Q

Incomplete Proteins

A

Proteins that contain small amounts of essential amino acids or some, but not all, of the essential amino acids

15
Q

Fats

A

Lipids, essential nutrient composed of fatty acids and used for energy and other body functions

16
Q

Saturated Fats

A

Lipids that are the predominant fat in animal products and other fats taht remain solid at room temperature

17
Q

Monounsaturated Fats

A

Lipids that are liquid at room temperature and semisolid or solid when refrigerated

18
Q

Polyunsaturated Fats

A

Lipids that are liquid at room temperature and in the refrigerator

19
Q

Cholesterol

A

Waxy substances produced by the liver and obtained from animal food sources; essential to the functioning of the body but a possible factor in cardiovascular disease if too much is circulating in the bloodstream

20
Q

Trans Fatty Acid

A

Lipids that have been chemically modified through the process of hydrogenation so that they remain solid at room temperature

21
Q

Hydrogenation

A

Process whereby liquid vegetable oils are turned into more solid fats

22
Q

Omega-3 Fatty Acids

A

Polyunsaturated fatty acids that have beneficial effects on cardiovascular health

23
Q

Mineral

A

Naturally occurring inorganic micronutrients, such as megnesium, calcium, and iron, that contribute to proper functioning of the body

24
Q

Vitamins

A

Naturally occurring organic micronutrients that aid chemical reactions in the body and help maintain healthy body systems

25
Q

Phytochemicals

A

Substances that are naturally produced by plants to protect themselves and that provide health benefits in the human body

26
Q

Free Radicals

A

Unstable molecules that are produced when oxygen is metabolized and that damage cell structures and DNA

27
Q

Antioxidants

A

Substances in foods that neutralize the effects of free radicals

28
Q

Nutrient Density

A

The proportion of nutrients to total calories in a food

29
Q

Food Security

A

Having enough food at all times to support an active, healthy lifestyle

30
Q

Food intoxication

A

A kind of food poisoning in which a food is contaminated by natural toxins or by microbes that produce toxins

31
Q

Food Infection

A

A kind of food poisoning in which a food is contaminated by disease-causing microorganisms, or pathogens

32
Q

GMO’s

A

Organisms whose genetic makeup has been changed to produce desirable traits