Chapter 6 --organic Chemistry Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 6 --organic Chemistry Deck (41):
1

Functional group

In a molecule is an atom or group of atoms that gives the compound some distinctive and predictable properties

Eg. COOH - gives molecules a sour acidic taste

2

Homologous series

Set of compounds with the same functional group, similar chemical properties and physical properties - show graduation / gradual change from one to the next

3

Alcohols

-OH

ol ending for hydroxyl group

4

Chain isomerism

Structural isomerism

Same molecular formular but different structure eg

CH3-CH2-CH2-CH3

CH3-CH-CH3
|
CH3

5

Position isomerism

Molecules with same functional group but attached in different positions on the same carbon chain

Eg. propan-1-ol , propan-2-ol

6

Stereoisomerism

Have same molecular formular

Same structural formular

Different arrangement

7

Fractional distillation

Converts crude oil into a small number of fractions

Done in a distillation Column

8

Cracking

Demand for shorter chained hydrocarbons is higher.

Passing hydrocarbons in heavier fractions through a heated catalyst (zeolite usually — which is aluminium,silicon, oxygen)
One large molecule —> at least two smaller molecules

9

Reforming

Straight chained allanes burn less efficiently than branches chained /rings (cyclic compounds)

Converts straight chained alkanes into branched/cyclic hydrocarbons by heating them with a catalyst (platinum)
Helps them burn more smoothly in the engine

10

Inside catalytic converters

2CO + O2 —> 2CO2

2NO + 2CO —> N2+2CO2

11

Biodiesel

Vegetable oils

12

Bioethanol

Bacteria made rather than enzymes —- eg corn

13

Comparing fuels 4

Land use
Yield / speed
Manufacture n transport
Carbon neutrality

14

Radical

Species with an unpaired electron

15

Mechanism

Sequence of two or more steps (with each, an equation) that shows how a reaction takes place

16

Test for Alkene

Decolourises bromine water

17

Hydration catalyst

Phosphoric Acod
H3PO4

18

Diol

Compound containing two -OH groups

19

Oxidation to diols

Oxidising agent - potassium manganate(VII)

Acidic conditions (usually dilute sulfúrico acid)

Potassium manganate(VII) provides oxygen atom and water in solution provides another and 2* Hydrogen atoms

KManganate from purple to colourless (can be used like bromine water to test for alkene)

20

Ketone

When a secondary alcohol is oxidised - homologous series

21

Ketone formula

RCOR

22

Aldehyde

When a primary alcohol is oxidised

23

Aldehyde formula

RCHO

24

Aldehyde oxidised further

Gain of oxygen atom not loss of hydrogen

Carboxylic acid

25

Carboxylic acid formula

RCOOH

26

Usual reagent for oxidation reactions primary and secondary alcohols

Mixture of potassium dichromate(VI) and dilute sulfúric acid

27

Ketone ending

-one

28

Aldehyde ending

-al

29

Heating under reflux

When oxidation intended to be complete

Products stay in reaction ( boil off but condense in vertical condenser n return to heating flask)

30

Distillation with addition

When oxidation intended to be incomplete

- to obtain an aldehyde-

Only oxidising agent heated and alcohol slowly added to oxidising agent

Aldehyde distils off immediately when formed as has much lower boiling point than alcohol used to make it - aldehyde collected in reciever

31

Why thermometer in distillation

If temp remains steady then indicates one compound is distilling over

If temp rises after a while , indicates a diff compound is distilling over

32

Pros of simple distillation over fractional

Easier to set up and quicker

33

Cons of simple distillation over fractional

Doesn’t separate liquids as well

Should only be used if boiling temp of liquid being purified is very diff from other liquids in mixture (more than 25^C)

34

Immiscible

Doesn’t mix

35

Testing for purity

Measure boiling temp of liquid

Error may be thermometer
Diff organic compounds have same boiling temp

36

Homolytic fission

Breaking of a covalent bond where each of the bonding electrons leaves with one species forming a radical

37

Hydration

Adding H and OH to C=C

Usually heat Allene with steam and pass mixture over catalyst of phosphoric acid.

38

Oxidation to diols

Oxidising agent = potassium manganite (VII)

Acid conditions - dilute sulfuric acid

Use [O] as oxidising agent

39

Heterolytic fission

Formation on ions as a result

Both electrons go to one atom eg. In H-Br when bond breaks , electrons to bromine as it is more electronegative than H

40

Electrophilic addition

Electrophilic - species accepts a pair of electrons from another species and forms a covalent bond

Addition - two molecules react to form a single molecule

41

Nucleophile

Species with a lone pair of electrons

Forms a covalent bond with a + charges atom