Chapter 6- SOLUTIONS Flashcards Preview

Chemistry > Chapter 6- SOLUTIONS > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 6- SOLUTIONS Deck (33):
0

Boiling Point of a liquid

The temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid becomes equal to the atmospheric pressure

1

Vapor pressure

Pressure exerted by the vapor at equilibrium

2

Hydrogen Bonding

It's a special type of dipole dipole attraction, it's a very strong intermolecular attraction with molecules of hydrogen bonded directly to F, O, N

3

Amorphous solid

No organized structure

4

What is a solution

A homogenous mixture of 2 or more substances

5

What is a solute

Lesser quantity than the solvent

6

True solution

A homogenous mixture with uniform properties throughout

7

Electrolytes are typically what?

Ionic compounds

8

Nonelectrolytes are

Formed from non dissociating molecular solutes

9

Pure substances

Have only one component (water)

10

True solution

Contains more than one substance, with tiny particles homogeneously intermingled

11

Colloidal suspension

Consists of solute particles dispersed throughout a dispersing medium

12

Tyndall effect

The light scattering ability of colloidal suspension

True solutions don't scatter light
Makes liquid seem hazy

13

Solubility rule:

Like dissolves like

14

Saturated solution

Contains all the solute that can be dissolved at a certain temp

15

What happens if a saturated solution is cooled down?

The amount of solute that a solution can hold decreases and the excess solute that comes out is a precipitate

16

When a solute is added to a solvent what happens

It begins to dissolve and continues to dissolve until a dynamic equilibrium is reached.

When a solution is saturated that is when the solution is in equilibrium

17

Henry's law

States that the number of moles of a gas dissolved in a liquid at a given temp is proportional to the pressure of that gas in the atmosphere that is contact with the liquid

18

Gases are most soluble at

Low temps

19

Concentration

The amount of solute dissolved in a given amount of solution
Has an impact on:
Physical properties (melting and boiling points)
Chemical (solution reactivity)

20

Mass/Volume %

Amount of solute (grams) / amount of solution (mL)

21

Molarity (M)

The most common mole based concentration unit

Moles of solute / Liter of solution

22

Dilution

Required to prepare a less concentrated solution from a more concentrated one

M1V1 = M2V2

23

M1V1 = M2V2

M1= molarity of solution before dilution
V1= volume of solution before dilution
M2 = molarity of solution after dilution
V2 = volume of solution after dilution

24

Raoults Law

States that when a nonvolatile solute is added to a solvent the vapor pressure of the solvent decreases in proportion to the concentration of the solute

25

Freezing point depression

Proportional to the number of solute particles

26

Boiling point elevation

As temperature at which vapor pressure of the liquid equals the atmospheric pressure

27

An electrolyte will affect boiling point to a greater/lesser degree than a non electrolyte?

Greater

28

Molality

Moles of solutes / kg of solvent

29

Osmosis

The movement of solvent from a dilute solution to a more concentrate solution through a semipermeable membrane

30

Crenation

Collapse of a Cell

31

Electrolytes of a solution

2 common ways of expressing concentration of an ion in solution:

Moles per liter (molarity)
Equivalents per liter (eq/L)

32

How to find eq/L

It is the number of charges on the ion divided by the liter

Ex) CO3 has a 2 charge