Chapter 7/9 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 7/9 Deck (34):
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Urbanization

The movement of people to cities

1

Tenement

Multistory buildings divided into crowded apartments

2

Labor union

Workers organization that eventually gained the right of voting for all working men

3

Utopia

Impractical dreamers who tried to build self-sufficient communities where all work was shared and all property was owned in common

4

Utilitarians

The idea that the goal of society should be "the greatest of happiness for the greatest number" or its citizens.

5

Means of production

The farms, factories, railways, and other large businesses that produced and distributed goods

6

Bessemer process

A process to purify iron ore and produce steel. Steel was lighter, harder, and more durable than iron

7

Interchangeable parts

Identical components that could be used in place of one another

8

Assembly line

Workers add parts to a product that moves along a belt from one work station to the next

9

Stock

Shares in their companies, to investors

10

Corporation

Businesses that are ones by many investors who buy shares of stock

11

Standard of living

Measures the quality and availability of necessities and comforts in society

12

Social gospel

A movement that urged Christian to social service

13

Capitalism

An economic system in which investment in and ownership of the means of production, distribution, and exchange of wealth is made and maintained chiefly by private individuals or corporations

14

Socialism

An economic system in which government controls key industries, but still allows small privately owned companies

15

Communism

The final step in Marx's economic theory. An economic system in which all workers freely share in the profits from the products they make because they are equal owners.

16

Who was Adam smith

Advocates for a free market with no government regulation.

18

Which two theorists believed that the population would outpace the food supply

Thomas Malthus and David Ricardo

19

Who were the two main utillitarians

Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill

20

What was the Communist Manifesto and who created it

Karl Mark created it, and is was a reaction against the widening gap between the rich and the poor.

21

What did Karl Marx believe in

a classless society

22

This is a society where certain key industries are operated by the government.

Socialism

23

This is a society where people do not all start at the same economic level. There is a free market. Companies are managed by shareholders or individuals

Capitalim

24

What was the origin of species and who wrote it

Charles Darwin, and it stated that all living organisms evolve over the course of millions of years. Nature selects some species for extinction.

25

what was social darwism

The thought that Darwins idea could be applied to humans. People looked at this idea and asked why some people were richer than others? They were better "Survival of the fittest" The rich shouldn't help the poor; it interferes with the selection process.

26

What were unions

groups that advocated for better pay, safer environments, and better hours for the working class.

27

What was the Althorp's Act

Banned employment of children younger than 9, children between the ages of 9-13 couldn't work longer than 9 hours, and children between the ages of 13-18 couldn't work longer than 12 hours.

28

What are some of the ways health in cities was improved

Filters were used to purify water
Sewers were built
Cities hired street sweepers
soup kitchens were made

29

Describe three ways that city life changed in the late 1800's

Rebuilding the poor area in a city: George Haussann took down tenements and built wider roads with public buildings on them. Streets were paved: Gas lamps, and electrical street lights were built in order to make it safer to get around at night. Sewage systems: made cities helthier and more enjoyable places to live.

30

What were the different social classes in the late 1800's

Upper class, middle class, and lower class(peasants and workers)

31

What was the cult of domesticity

A group of books, magazines, and popular songs that idealized women and the home. The ideal women was seen as a tender and self-sacrificing caregiver who provided a nest and a peaceful refuge for her husband and kids

32

What arguments were made against extending rights to women

Some claimed that women were too emotional to be allowed to vote. Others said that women needed to be protected from politics or that the women's place was in a home, not in government

33

How did education improve in the late 1800s

More and more children were attending school, the quality of elementary schools improved and secondary schools expanded. Courses were added in science and industrial school had the knowledge to build the new industrial society

34

How did Darwin's theory challenge view's on the origins of man

Igniting a debate that was revolved around evolution. To many christians, the bible contained the only account of creation where it said that god created the world and all forms of life in 6 days. Darwin's theory reduced people to levels of animals and undermined belief in god and the soul.