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Flashcards in Chapter 7 - Intelligence Deck (12)
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How do you define intelligence?

Great debate exists on how intelligence should be defined. Intelligence is a concept not a concrete thing, like height or weight. There are several definitions and theories spawning since the late 1800s.


What do all theories of intelligence agree upon?

All theories agree that intelligence includes:
-The ability to learn from one's experiences
-The ability to acquire knowledge
-The ability to use resources effectively in adapting to new situations or solving problems
-Having characteristics needed to survive in one's culture.


What is two-factor theory? Who came up with the idea for two-factor theory? What are the advantages and disadvantages?

The two-factor theory states that intelligence is split into two separate factors. One is the "g" factor which is a general intelligence factor that underlies specific mental abilities. The other is the "s" factor or specific intelligence (verbal, mathematical & mechanical skills).
Spearman was the one who came up with two-factor theory.
-Can be objectively defined & measured by an IQ test
-Good predictor of performance in school & some job fields
-Debate exists if it's the best measure of intelligence.
-Narrow focus on cognitive abilities, doesn't measure other abilities.


What is the multiple intelligence theory? Who came up with the idea for multiple intelligence theory? What are the advantages and disadvantages?

Multiple intelligence theory splits intelligence into 9 different factors. Gardner came up with the idea for multiple intelligence theory.
1. Verbal: How well one thinks in words and uses language
2. Logical/Mathematical: How well one can carry out math operations
3. Musical: How sensitive one is to pitch, melody, rhythm, and tone
4. Spatial: How well one can think three-dimensionally
5. Kinesthetic: How well one can manipulate objects/Physical adeptness.
6. Interpersonal: How well one can understand & interact with others
7. Intrapersonal: How well one can understand themselves.
8. Naturalistic: How well one can observe/understand patterns in nature.
9. Existential: Ones level of spiritual understanding (this was added later on)
-Doesn't reduce intelligence to a single IQ score
-Gives credit to people with different kinds of intelligence.
-There may be more kinds of intelligence, or perhaps there are too many already, no way to know.
-No standard techniques to measure them.


What is triarchic theory? Who came up with the idea for triarchic theory? What are the advantages and disadvantages?

Triarchic theory states that intelligence can be divided into three different kinds of reasoning processes. Sternberg came up with the idea for triarchic theory.
1. Analytical intelligence
-Ability to analyze, judge, evaluate, compare and contrast.
-Allows you to do well on intelligence tests & SAT
-Academic problem solving
2. Creative Intelligence
-Ability to create, design, invent, originate, and imagine
3. Practical Intelligence
-Ability to use, apply, implement, and put tasks into practice
-Often required for everyday tasks
-Social skills and "common sense"
-Doesn't limit definition of intelligence to cognitive abilities
-Evaluates intelligence by measuring 3 reasoning processes & how they contribute to a person's success
-Processes can be difficult to measure


What is emotional intelligence? Who came up with the idea for emotional intelligence?

Emotional intelligence is awareness of & ability to manage one's own emotions. Includes the ability to be self-motivated, feel what others feel & be socially skilled. Emotional intelligence is viewed as a powerful influence on success in life. Salovey & Mayer (1990), and Goleman (1995) came up with the idea for emotional intelligence.


Who was Alfred Binet? How did he measure intelligence?

Binet developed the first intelligence test for the French government. He identified children who needed remedial education. He believed intelligence was a collection of mental abilities, and that the best way to assess it would be to measure ones ability to perform cognitive tasks. He measured ones intelligence by finding their mental age, which was a method of estimating a child's intellectual progress by comparing their test score to scores of average children of the same age.


What is the Wechsler test?

The most widely used IQ test, that is split into an adult, a child, and a preschool version.


What does a good test need to have?

Validity, or the extent to which a test measures what it is supposed to measure.
Reliability, or the extent to which a test yields consistent results on repeat testing of individuals or groups.


What is a normal distribution?

A statistical arrangement of scores that resemble a bell-shaped curve. Normal distribution represents all standardized test results.


What is the correlation between IQ and academic performance. Between IQ and job performance?

IQ and academic performance have a medium strength correlation (+.50).
IQ and job performance have a low to medium-strength correlation (+.30 to +.50).


What are the potential problems of IQ testing?

Non-intellectual factors
-Non-cognitive factors may help or hinder performance on tests
-Attitude, motivation, experience taking tests

Cultural Bias
-Wording of questions
-Experiences questions are based on
-Different cultures define intelligence differently