Chapter 7: psychosocial development in early childhood Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 7: psychosocial development in early childhood Deck (29):
1

Parent-Child Relationships 

Individualistic cultures

Collectivist cultures

Individualistic cultures

–  Parents left to their own devices

–  Lack of guidelines can lead to stress, loneliness, indecisiveness, self-doubt

Collectivist cultures

– Parents have less autonomy

– More community and family support 

2

Baumrind’s Parenting Styles (4)

Authoritarian
• Control and unquestioning obedience

Permissive
• Parents value self-expression and self-regulation

Authoritative
• Value child’s individuality, as well as restraint

Neglectful or Uninvolved (Maccoby & Martin)

• Parental needs are most important 

3

Outcomes of parenting styles

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4

Variations in Parenting Styles 

• Parents not necessarily consistent in ‘types’

• Style varies according to:

   • Specific circumstances
   • Duration of parenting and birth order

   • Changes and stresses in family
   • Temperament of child

Inconsistencies between parents can lead to confusion or ‘playing one against the other’ 

5

Cultural Variations of parenting styles

Different parenting styles shown to have more positive outcomes in some cultures

• Chao (1994): Asian American families

   • Acceptance of chiao shun (training) indicates appropriate respect of elders
African American and Hispanic

   • More authoritarian parenting associated with positive outcomes 

6

Child Neglect and Abuse 

Neglect
   • Deprivation of food, clothing, shelter, medical care

   • Deprivation of psychological or emotional needs

Abuse
   • Physical injury, sexual interference, psychological harm

• Long-term effects continue into adulthood

• Explanations draw on internal working models of parents 

7

Who is Mandated to Report Abuse? 

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8

Relationships with Siblings 

  • Provide opportunities for socialisation
  • Distinct from parent-child relationships
  • Relationships affected by numerous factors including birth order and spacing and sex of siblings
  • Firstborn children tend to be more adult- oriented, conforming, anxious
  • Sibling rivalry may be evident in later years 

9

The Only Child 

Research

• Sometimes stereotyped as self-centred or spoilt

• Concern that development might be adversely affected by being sole focus of parental attention

• Research does not support stereotypes of only children being selfish, lonely, spoiled, or maladjusted.

• Research does suggest higher achievement in:

   • Self-esteem
   • Positive personality
   • Achievement motivation

   • Academic success 

10

The Family Context 

  • Sibling relationships don’t occur in isolation – influenced by family context
  • Negative behaviours linked to parent-child relationship and parents marital relationship
  • Reduced hostility following the birth of younger sibling if parents prepare child for the new arrival and involve them in activities
  • Sibling relationships during the pre-school years can set the scene for relationships later in life 

11

Peer Relationships 

  • Children’s social worlds expand outside of family in the preschool years
  • Enable development of social skills that may not necessarily be acquired from family relationships
  • Peer relationships characterised by equality of power and competence
  • Learn important skills such as sharing, conflict resolution and understanding of others’ thoughts 

12

Conceptions of Friendship 

• Friends spend more time playing with emotional expressiveness, reciprocity, and interdependence

• By 3-4 years, majority of children have 1-2 friends

• Early friendships typified by shared activities and the exchange of toys
• Lack qualities such as loyalty

• Growth in trust and mutual support as school age approaches 

13

Saracho and Spodek (1998) define play as: 

• Intrinsically, not extrinsically motivated
• Process-, not product-oriented
• Creative and non-literal

• Having implicit rules
• Spontaneous and self-initiated
• Free from major emotional distress 

14

Parten’s Social Dimensions of Play 

  • unoccupied play
  • solitary play
  • onlooker play
  • parallel play
  • associative play
  • cooperative play

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15

Grusec and Lytton’s Cognitive Typology 

  • functional play
  • constructive play
  • pretend play
  • games with rules

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16

Theories of Play 

psychoanalytic (Freud, Erikson)

social learning (Bandura)

Psychoanalytic (Freud, Erikson)

• Opportunity to gain mastery over anxieties
• Repetition compulsion
• Catharsis
• Acting out trauma may be used in play therapy

Social learning (Bandura)
• Roles learned through direct, vicarious or self reinforcement
• Particularly important for gender roles 

17

Theories of Play 

Ethological

Cognitive (Piaget, Vygotsky)

Ethological
• Similar to animal behaviour – evolution of intelligence?
• Physical activity play:

• Rhythmic stereotypes
• Exercise play
• Rough-and-tumble play

Cognitive (Piaget, Vygotsky)
• Symbolic play extends possibilities

• Social and cognitive development 

18

Ethology:

the science of animal behaviour

19

Prosocial Behaviour 

Other-directed actions
• Sharing, reassuring, protecting, helping

• Altruistic, no expectation of reward

Empathy
• Emotional, behavioural, cognitive (theory of mind)

Sympathy more likely to lead to prosocial action

Early temperament predicts prosocial behaviour 

20

Antisocial Behaviour 

Agression forms (4)

• Intentional negative acts against others

Aggression takes several forms:
   • Instrumental: achieve a goal
   • Hostile: directly or indirectly cause harm

   • Reactive: spontaneous physical harm
   • Proactive: premeditated acts

• Boys more physically aggressive (i.e., overt), girls more verbally aggressive (i.e., relational)

• Particular harmful effects of relational aggression and role in bullying 

21

Development of Aggression 

Temperament

Parenting style

Media

Temperament
• ‘Difficult’ babies experience more conflict

Parenting style
• Permissive, uninvolved and authoritarian parenting associated with higher aggression

• Authoritative parenting associated with prosocial behaviours

Media
• Viewing violence may remove inhibitions

• Controversial 

22

Controlling Aggression 

• Early intervention and work with family

• Teach authoritative parenting style and prosocial behaviours

• Establish structure and consistency

• Provide social problem-solving and assertiveness training to combat hostile bias

• Address potential marital problems 

23

Gender Identity 

• Awareness that one is male or female

• Develops in the context of society

• Behavioural differences – choices of:

    • Toys

    • Play activities

    • Playmates 

24

Gender-Role Development 

gender roles

gender typing

• Difference between gender and sex

Gender roles

• Societal expectations of males and females

• Different from each other and conform to stereotypes

• Preconceived generalisations about male or female

behaviour

Gender typing
• Process of acquiring gender-consistent behaviours

• Social behaviours of girls and boys different from early age 

25

Biological Theories of Gender Role Development 

female

male

parental investment theory

criticism

• Evolutionary focus on natural selection

    • Female nurturance associated with childbearing role

    • Male aggression and dominance associated with hunter/provider role

• Parental Investment Theory - passing on genetic material

• Hormonal influences - example of CAH

Fails to acknowledge current social environment 

26

Learning Theories of Gender-Role Development 

  • Gender roles and behaviour learnt through reinforcement, modelling, self-regulation
    • Observation and imitation
  • Role appropriate behaviour positively reinforced, role inappropriate behaviour negatively reinforced
  • Boys more likely to be negatively reinforced for gender inappropriate behaviour than girls
  • Reinforcement and modelling from parents, peers and media
  • Children portrayed as passive recipients 

27

Cognitive Theories of Gender-Role Development 

Kohlberg (1966)
• Gender labelling: assign labels “boy”, “girl”, “man”, “woman” to individuals based on appearance

• Gender stability: realisation that gender remains the same

• Gender constancy: awareness that one will always be male or female

Martin and Halverson (1981, 1987)
• Develop own gender identity, then build a gender-role schema, increasing complexity
Cognitive theories minimise social and cultural effects 

28

Androgyny 

• Gender roles are flexible
• Males and females can integrate traditional role-typed behaviours

Bem (1977): Sex Role Inventory

• Masculine
• Feminine
• Androgynous
• Undifferentiated 

29

Effects and Implications of Androgyny 

  • Androgynous people better adjusted (Bem, 1981, 1987; Lamke, 1982)
  • Reduces effects of stereotypes and promotes gender equity
  • Contributes to understanding of homosexual orientations
  • Minimising differences may reduce need for specific support
  • Post-androgyny: gender-role transcendence