Chapter 7 Special senses Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 7 Special senses Deck (21):

What are the Five special senses?

  • Smell
  • Taste
  • Sight
  • Hearing
  • Equilibrium (touch)


Which receptor senses light?



What receptor senses chemicals?



What receptor senses pressure?



What are 1 2 and 3?

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1. free neuron dendrites (smell)

2. Encapsulated dendrites (touch)

3. Association with a non-neuronal sensory cell (taste, sound, sight)


What is the Olfactory bulb?

  • It's involved with the sense of smell, uses chemoreceptors.
  • Type 1 receptors (free neuron endings)



How does the Olfactory Bulb work?

  • Sensory neurons are organized in “olfactory bulb”
  • Free dendrites are embedded in nasal tissue and have proteins that sense chemicals
  • Action potentials can occur and are transmitted to brain via the “olfactory tract”, an afferent path.


What is Gustation?

  • It has do with the sense of taste, uses chemoreceptors
  • Type 3 receptors (non-neuronal cell association)


How does Gustation work?

  • Our tongue is covered in papillae
  • Taste buds are located on the sides of papillae
  • A taste bud is defined as a grouping of specialized cells (taste cells) that bind to flavor molecules


What do Taste Bud cells do?


  • Taste cells have proteins that can bind to flavor molecules in membrane
    • Binding of chemical to taste cell can result in depolarization of the cell
  • Taste cells are associated with neuron free endings at synapse
    • Allows for the transmission of action potential
    • Signal leaves taste bud on afferent nerve to brain (gustatory nerve)


What are qualities of sight?

  • Light enters and is focused on the retina (nervous tissue of the eye)
  • Retina consists of pigmented cells and neuronal-associated cells
    • Pigmented cells help collect light
    • Neuronal-associated cells include photoreceptors, bipolar, and ganglion cells
    • Similar to type 3 receptor (non-neuronal cell association)


What are the three different types of cells?

  • Photoreceptors
  • Bipolar cells
  • Ganglion cells 


What do Photoreceptors, Bipolar Cellls, and Ganglion Cells do for the Retina?

  • Photoreceptors absorb light
  • Bipolar cells (neurons) are either excited or inhibited by photoreceptors
  • Ganglion cells “sum” bipolar activity
    • Their axons form the optic nerve, which runs to the brain
    • Summation occurs at ganglion cell to determine if action potential is initiated

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What do Photoreceptors do and what are Rods and Cones?

  • Photoreceptors use pigments to detect light
  • Rods (rhodopsin)
    • Dim light vision
    • Black and white
  • Cones (photopsin)
    • Bright light vision
    • Color 
    • Three types of photopsin (blue, green, and red)


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A person is diagnosed with having dysfunctional retinal cones.  What disease would this represent?

A. Blindness
B. Color blindness
C. Poor night vision
D. Far-sightedness



C. Color Blindness


What is the process of Retinal Implants?

  • Electric chips embedded in retina and electrically attached to optic nerve
  • Acts as photoreceptors to initiate communication to the brain

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What does the Sense of Hearing?

  • Uses mechanoreceptors
    • The conversion of sound waves to action potentials
    • Energy of sound waves is transmitted through air and liquid
  • Type 3 receptor (non-neuronal cell association)

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What are the three regions of the process of the sense of hearing and what are their functions or how do they work?

  • Outer: transmits sounds waves to ear drum 
  • Middle:  ear drum vibrates middle ear bones
  • Inner: vibrations are transferred to fluid (think wave pool) and can trigger depolarization in specialized cells in “cochlea”

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What is another name for the inner ear and what is it?

Three fluid filled tubes wrapped together like a snail shell
Middle is the cochlear duct
Cochlear duct
Location of Organ of Corti (converts sound to action potentials)


What does the Organ of Corti contain?

  • Contains specialized mechanoreceptors  hair cells

Respond to mechanical stimulation (bending)
Gated-channel proteins that opens in response to vibrations


What do the hair cells do to contribute to the Organ of Corti

  • Hair cells are secured by the basilar membrane
    • “Hairs” or stereocilia are embedded in tectorial membrane above
    • Stereocilia bend when vibrations occur and depolarize cell
  • Hair cells communicate with auditory neurons, which will use summation to initiate an action potential

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