Flashcards in Chapter 9 Deck (32)
1. Which test is performed around the time of ovulation to diagnose the basis of infertility?
d. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) level
Ultrasonography is performed around the time of ovulation to assess pelvic structures for abnormalities, to verify follicular development, and to assess the thickness of the endometrium. A hysterosalpingogram is scheduled 2 to 5 days after menstruation to avoid flushing a potentially fertilized ovum out through a uterine tube into the peritoneal cavity. Laparoscopy is usually scheduled early in the menstrual cycle. Hormone analysis is performed to assess endocrine function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis when menstrual cycles are absent or irregular.
2. An infertility specialist prescribes clomiphene citrate (Clomid, Serophene) for a woman experiencing infertility. She is very concerned about the risk of multiple pregnancies. What is the nurse’s most appropriate response?
a. “This is a legitimate concern. Would you like to discuss further the chances of multiple pregnancies before your treatment begins?”
b. “No one has ever had more than triplets with Clomid.”
c. “Ovulation will be monitored with ultrasound to ensure that multiple pregnancies will not happen.”
d. “Ten percent is a very low risk, so you don’t need to worry too much.”
The incidence of multiple pregnancies with the use of these medications is higher than 25%. The client’s concern is legitimate and should be discussed so that she can make an informed decision. Stating that no one has ever had more than triplets with Clomid is inaccurate and negates the client’s concerns. Ultrasound cannot ensure that a multiple pregnancy will not occur, and 10% is inaccurate. Furthermore, the client’s concern is discredited with a statement such as, “…don’t worry.”
3. A man smokes two packs of cigarettes a day. He wants to know if smoking is contributing to the difficulty he and his wife are having getting pregnant. Which guidance should the nurse provide?
a. “Your sperm count seems to be okay in the first semen analysis.”
b. “Only marijuana cigarettes affect sperm count.”
c. “Although smoking has no effect on sperm count, it can give you lung cancer.”
d. “Smoking can reduce the quality of your sperm.”
Cigarette smoking has detrimental effects on sperm and has been associated with abnormal sperm, a decreased number of sperm, and chromosomal damage. The nurse may suggest a smoking cessation program to increase the fertility of the male partner. Sperm counts vary from day to day and are dependent on emotional and physical status and sexual activity. Therefore, a single analysis may be inconclusive. A minimum of two analyses must be performed several weeks apart to assess male fertility. Marijuana use may depress the number and motility of sperm. Smoking is indeed a causative agent for lung cancer.
4. A couple comes in for an infertility workup, having attempted to achieve pregnancy for 2 years. The woman, 37 years of age, has always had irregular menstrual cycles but is otherwise healthy. The man has fathered two children from a previous marriage and had a vasectomy reversal 2 years ago. The man has had two normal semen analyses, but the sperm seem to be clumped together. What additional testing is needed?
a. Testicular biopsy
b. Antisperm antibodies
c. FSH level
d. Examination for testicular infection
This scenario does not indicate that the woman has had any testing related to her irregular menstrual cycles. Hormone analysis is performed to assess endocrine function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis when menstrual cycles are absent or irregular. Determining the blood levels of prolactin, FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol, progesterone, and thyroid hormones may be necessary to diagnose the cause of the woman’s irregular menstrual cycles. A testicular biopsy is indicated only in cases of azoospermia (no sperm cells) or severe oligospermia (low number of sperm cells). Although unlikely to be the case because the husband has already produced children, antisperm antibodies may be produced by the man against his own sperm. Examination for testicular infection would be performed before semen analysis. Furthermore, infection would affect spermatogenesis.
5. A couple is attempting to cope with an infertility problem. They want to know what they can do to preserve their emotional equilibrium. What is the nurse’s most appropriate response?
a. “Tell your friends and family so that they can help you.”
b. “Talk only to other friends who are infertile, because only they can help.”
c. “Get involved with a support group. I’ll give you some names.”
d. “Start adoption proceedings immediately, because adopting an infant can be very difficult.”
Venting negative feelings may unburden the couple. A support group may provide a safe haven for the couple to share their experiences and gain insight from others’ experiences. Although talking about their feelings may unburden them of negative feelings, infertility can be a major stressor that affects the couple’s relationships with family and friends. Limiting their interactions to other infertile couples may be a beginning point for addressing psychosocial needs. However, depending on where the other couple is in their own recovery process, limiting their interactions may not be of assistance to them. Telling the couple to start adoption proceedings immediately is not supportive of the psychosocial needs of this couple and may be detrimental to their well-being.
6. The nurse working with clients who have infertility concerns should be aware of the use of leuprolide acetate (Lupron) as a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist. For which condition would this medication be prescribed?
a. Anovulatory cycles
b. Uterine fibroids
c. Polycystic ovary disease (PCOD)
d. Luteal phase inadequacy
Leuprolide acetate is used to treat endometriosis and uterine fibroids. Anovulatory cycles are treated with Clomid, Serophene, Pergonal, or Profasi, all of which stimulate ovulation induction. Metrodin is used to treat PCOD. Progesterone is used to treat luteal phase inadequacy.
7. Which condition would be inappropriate to treat with exogenous progesterone (human chorionic gonadotropin)?
a. Thyroid dysfunction
b. Recent miscarriage
d. Oocyte retrieval
Synthroid is administered for anovulation associated with hypothyroidism. For women with polycystic ovulation syndrome or a history of miscarriage, oocyte retrieval may have insufficient progesterone and require exogenous progesterone until placental production is sufficient.
8. In vitro fertilization–embryo transfer (IVF-ET) is a common approach for women with blocked fallopian tubes or with unexplained infertility and for men with very low sperm counts. A husband and wife have arrived for their preprocedural interview. Which explanation regarding the procedure is most accurate?
a. “The procedure begins with collecting eggs from your wife’s ovaries.”
b. “A donor embryo will be transferred into your wife’s uterus.”
c. “Donor sperm will be used to inseminate your wife.”
d. “Don’t worry about the technical stuff; that’s what we are here for.”
A woman’s eggs are collected from her ovaries, fertilized in the laboratory with the partner’s sperm, and transferred to her uterus after normal embryonic development has occurred. Transferring a donor embryo to the woman’s uterus describes the procedure for a donor embryo. Inseminating the woman with donor sperm describes therapeutic donor insemination. Telling the client not to worry discredits the client’s need for teaching and is not the most appropriate response
9. With regard to the assessment of female, male, or couple infertility, the nurse should be aware of which important information?
a. The couple’s religious, cultural, and ethnic backgrounds provide emotional clutter that does not affect the clinical scientific diagnosis.
b. The investigation will take several months and can be very costly.
c. The woman is assessed first; if she is not the problem, then the male partner is analyzed.
d. Semen analysis is for men; the postcoital test is for women.
Fertility assessment and diagnosis take time, money, and commitment from the couple. Religious, cultural, and ethnic-bred attitudes about fertility and related issues always have an effect on diagnosis and assessment. Both partners are systematically and simultaneously assessed, first as individuals and then as a couple. Semen analysis is for men; however, the postcoital test is for the couple.
10. The nurse is having her first meeting with a couple experiencing infertility. The nurse has formulated the nursing diagnosis, “Deficient knowledge, related to lack of understanding of the reproductive process with regard to conception.” Which nursing intervention does not apply to this diagnosis?
a. Assess the current level of factors promoting conception.
b. Provide information regarding conception in a supportive manner.
c. Evaluate the couple’s support system.
d. Identify and describe the basic infertility tests.
Evaluating the couple’s support system would be a nursing action more suitable to the diagnosis, “Ineffective individual coping, related to the ability to conceive.”
11. Male fertility declines slowly after age 40 years; however, no cessation of sperm production analogous to menopause in women occurs in men. What condition is not associated with advanced paternal age?
a. Autosomal dominant disorder
c. Autism spectrum disorder
d. Down syndrome
Paternal age older than 40 years is associated with an increased risk for autosomal dominant disorder, schizophrenia, and autism spectrum disorder in their offspring. Although Down syndrome can occur in any pregnancy, it is often associated with advanced maternal age.
12. A woman inquires about herbal alternative methods for improving fertility. Which statement by the nurse is most appropriate when informing the client on which herbal preparations may improve ovulation induction therapy?
a. “You should avoid nettle leaf, dong quai, and vitamin E while you are trying to get pregnant.”
b. “You may want to try black cohosh or phytoestrogens.”
c. “You should take vitamins E and C, selenium, and zinc.”
d. “Herbs have no bearing on fertility.”
Ovulation therapy may have better outcomes when supplemented by black cohosh, progesterone, or plant estrogens. Antioxidant vitamins E and C, selenium, zinc, coenzyme 10, and ginseng have been shown to improve male fertility. Although most herbal remedies have not been clinically proven, many women find them helpful. They should be prescribed by a health care provider who has knowledge of herbalism.
13. To provide adequate care, the nurse should be cognitive of which important information regarding infertility?
a. Is perceived differently by women and men.
b. Has a relatively stable prevalence among the overall population and throughout a woman’s potential reproductive years.
c. Is more likely the result of a physical flaw in the woman than in her male partner.
d. Is the same thing as sterility.
Women tend to be more stressed about infertility tests and to place more importance on having children. The prevalence of infertility is stable among the overall population, but it increases with a woman’s age, especially after age 40 years. Of cases with an identifiable cause, approximately 40% are related to female factors, 40% to male factors, and 20% to both partners. Sterility is the inability to conceive. Infertility or subfertility is a state of requiring a prolonged time to conceive.
14. Although remarkable developments have occurred in reproductive medicine, assisted reproductive therapies are associated with numerous legal and ethical issues. Nurses can provide accurate information about the risks and benefits of treatment alternatives to enable couples to make informed decisions about their choice of treatment. Which concern is unnecessary for the nurse to address before treatment?
a. Risks of multiple gestation
b. Whether or how to disclose the facts of conception to offspring
c. Freezing embryos for later use
d. Financial ability to cover the cost of treatment
Although the method of payment is important, obtaining this information is not the responsibility of the nurse. Many states have mandated some form of insurance to assist couples with coverage for infertility. Multiple gestation is a risk of treatment of which the couple needs to be aware. To minimize the chance of multiple gestation, generally only three or fewer embryos are transferred. The couple should be informed that multifetal reduction may be needed. Nurses can provide anticipatory guidance on this matter. Depending on the therapy chosen, donor oocytes, sperm, embryos, or a surrogate mother may be needed. Couples who have excess embryos frozen for later transfer must be fully informed before consenting to the procedure. A decision must be made regarding the disposal of embryos in the event of death or divorce or if the couple no longer wants the embryos at a future time.
15. Which statement regarding gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) is most accurate?
a. Semen is collected after laparoscopy.
b. Women must have two normal fallopian tubes.
c. Ovulation spontaneously occurs.
d. Ova and sperm are transferred to one tube.
Similar to in vitro fertilization (IVF), GIFT requires the woman to have at least one normal tube. Ovulation is induced, and the oocytes are aspirated during laparoscopy. Semen is collected before laparoscopy. The ova and sperm are then transferred to one uterine tube, permitting natural fertilization and cleavage.
16. Significant advances have been made with most reproductive technologies. Which improvement has resulted in increased success related to preimplantation genetic diagnosis?
a. Embryos are transferred at the cleavage stage.
b. Embryos are transferred at the blastocyst stage.
c. More than two embryos can be transferred at a time.
d. Two cells are removed from each embryo.
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis can be performed on a single cell removed from each embryo after 3 to 4 days. With the availability of extended culture mediums, embryos are transferred at the blastocyst stage (day 5), which increases the chance of a live birth, compared with the older practice of transferring embryos at the cleavage stage (day 3). No more than two embryos should be transferred at a time.
17. An infertile woman is about to begin pharmacologic treatment. As part of the regimen, she will take purified FSH (Metrodin). The nurse instructs her that this medication is administered in the form of what?
a. Intranasal spray
b. Vaginal suppository
c. Intramuscular (IM) injection
Metrodin is only administered by IM injection, and the dose may vary. An intranasal spray or a vaginal suppository are not appropriate routes for Metrodin, nor can Metrodin be given by mouth in tablet form.
18. A couple arrives for their first appointment at an infertility center. Which of the following is a noninvasive test performed during the initial diagnostic phase of testing?
b. Endometrial biopsy
c. Sperm analysis
Sperm analysis is the basic noninvasive test performed during initial diagnostic phase of testing for male infertility. Radiographic film examination allows visualization of the uterine cavity after the instillation of a radiopaque contrast medium through the cervix. The endometrial biopsy is an invasive procedure, during which a small cannula is introduced into the uterus and a portion of the endometrium is removed for histologic examination. Laparoscopy is useful to view the pelvic structures intraperitoneally and is an invasive procedure.
1. Many factors, male and female, contribute to normal fertility. Approximately 40% of cases of infertility are related to the female partner. Which factors are possible causes for female infertility? (Select all that apply.)
a. Congenital or developmental
b. Hormonal or ovulatory
c. Tubal or peritoneal
e. Emotional or psychologic
ANS: A, B, C, D
Female infertility can be attributed to alterations in any one of these systems along with possible vaginal-cervical factors. Although the diagnosis and treatment of infertility require considerable emotional investment and may cause psychologic stress, these are not considered factors associated with infertility. Feelings connected with infertility are many and complex. Resolve is an organization that provides support, advocacy, and education for both clients and health care providers.
2. A probable cause for increasing infertility is the societal delay in pregnancy until later in life. What are the natural reasons for the decrease in female fertility? (Select all that apply.)
a. Ovulation dysfunction
b. Endocrine dysfunction
c. Organ damage from toxins
e. Tubal infections
ANS: A, C, D, E
All of these factors may result in a cumulative effect, decreasing fertility in women. Male infertility is more often caused by unfavorable sperm production attributable to endocrine dysfunction or cumulative metabolic disease.
3. Women who have undergone an oophorectomy, have ovarian failure, or a genetic defect may be eligible to receive donor oocytes (eggs). Which statements regarding oocyte donation are accurate? (Select all that apply.)
a. Donor is inseminated with semen from the parent.
b. Donor eggs are fertilized with the male partner’s sperm.
c. Donors are under 35 years of age.
d. Recipient undergoes hormonal stimulation.
e. Ovum is placed into a surrogate.
ANS: B, C, D
Oocyte donation is usually provided by healthy women under the age of 35 years, who are recruited and paid to undergo ovarian stimulation and oocyte retrieval. The donor eggs are fertilized in a laboratory with the male partner’s sperm. The woman undergoes hormonal stimulation to allow the development of the uterine lining. Embryos are then transferred. A donor that is inseminated with the male partner’s semen or receives the fertilized ovum and then carries it to gestation is known as a surrogate mother.
4. Which procedure falls into the category of micromanipulation techniques of the follicle? (Select all that apply.)
a. Intrauterine insemination
b. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis
c. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ISCI)
d. Assisted hatching
ANS: C, D
ISCI makes it possible to achieve fertilization even with a few or poor quality sperm by introducing sperm beneath the zone pellucid into the egg. Another micromanipulation technique is assisted hatching. An infrared laser breaks through the thick or tough zone pellucid, enabling the blastocyst to hatch.
A woman inquires about herbal alternative methods for improving fertility. Which statement by the nurse is the most appropriate for instructing the woman about which herbal preparations to avoid while trying to conceive?
A. “You should avoid nettle leaf, dong quai, and vitamin E while you are trying to get pregnant.”
B. “You may want to avoid licorice root, lavender, fennel, sage, and thyme while you are trying to conceive.”
C. “You should not take anything with vitamin E, calcium, or magnesium. They will make you infertile.”
D. “Herbs have no bearing on fertility.”
Although most herbal remedies have not been proven clinically to promote fertility, herbs that a woman should avoid while trying to conceive include licorice root, yarrow, wormwood, ephedra, fennel, goldenseal, lavender, juniper, flaxseed, pennyroyal, passionflower, wild cherry, cascara, sage, thyme, and periwinkle. Nettle leaf, dong quai, and vitamin E promote fertility; calcium and magnesium may promote fertility and conception.
Semen analysis is a common diagnostic procedure related to infertility. In instructing a male client regarding this test, the nurse would tell him to:
A. Ejaculate into a sterile container.
B. Obtain the specimen after a period of abstinence from ejaculation of 2 to 5 days.
C. Transport specimen with container packed in ice.
D. Ensure that the specimen arrives at the laboratory within 30 minutes of ejaculation.
An ejaculated sample should be obtained after a period of abstinence to get the best results. The male must ejaculate into a clean container or a plastic sheath that does not contain a spermicide. He should avoid exposing the specimen to extremes of temperature, either heat or cold, and the specimen should be taken to the laboratory within 2 hours of ejaculation.
Nurses should be aware that infertility:
A. Is perceived differently by women and men. Correct
B. Has a relatively stable prevalence among the overall population and throughout a woman’s potential reproductive years.
C. Is more likely the result of a physical flaw in the woman than in her male partner.
D. Is the same thing as sterility.
Women tend to be more stressed about infertility tests and to place more importance on having children. The prevalence of infertility is stable among the overall population, but it increases with a woman’s age, especially after age 40. Of cases with an identifiable cause, about 40% are related to female factors, 40% to male factors, and 20% to both partners. Infertility is a state of requiring a prolonged time to conceive, or subfertility; sterility is the inability to conceive.
Although remarkable developments have occurred in reproductive medicine, assisted reproductive therapies are associated with a number of legal and ethical issues. Nurses can provide accurate information about the risks and benefits of treatment alternatives so couples can make informed decisions about their choice of treatment. Which issue would not need to be addressed by an infertile couple before treatment?
A. Risk of multiple gestation
B. Whether or how to disclose the facts of conception to offspring
C. Freezing embryos for later use
D. Financial ability to cover the cost of treatment
Although the method of payment is important, obtaining information about ability to pay is not the nurses’ responsibility; it is also of note that 14 states have mandated some form of insurance to assist couples with coverage for infertility. Multiple gestation is indeed a risk of treatment of which the couple needs to be aware. To minimize this risk, generally only three or fewer embryos are transferred. The couple should be informed that there may be a need for multifetal reduction. Nurses can provide anticipatory guidance on disclosure to offspring. Depending on the therapy chosen, there may be a need for donor oocytes, sperm, embryos, or a surrogate mother. Couples who have excess embryos frozen for later transfer must be fully informed before consenting to the procedure. A decision must be made regarding the disposal of embryos in the event of death or divorce or if the couple no longer wants the embryos at a future time.
A couple presents for their first appointment at an infertility center. A noninvasive test done during initial diagnostic testing is:
B. Endometrial biopsy
C. Sperm analysis
Sperm analysis, the basic test for male infertility, is the only noninvasive procedure listed. A hysterosalpingogram is radiographic film examination that allows visualization of the uterine cavity after instillation of radiopaque contrast medium through the cervix. During an endometrial biopsy, a small cannula is introduced into the uterus and a portion of the endometrium is removed for histologic examination. Laparoscopy is useful in order to view the pelvic structures intraperitoneally.
An infertile woman is about to begin pharmacologic treatment. As part of the regimen, she will take purified follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) (urofollitropin [Metrodin]). The nurse instructs her that this medication is administered in the form of a/an:
A. Intranasal spray
B. Vaginal suppository
C. Intramuscular injection
Urofollitropin is given by IM injection; the dosage may vary. It cannot be given by the other routes listed.
The rate of fertility declines dramatically after age 35. While explaining the cause of this rapid decline in fertility to the client, the nurse is aware that the primary reason for this is related to:
B. Abnormalities of oocytes
D. Metabolic disease
By age 40, the total number of ovarian follicles is diminishing and the quality of the remaining eggs is poor. Endometriosis is more common in women who delay childbearing until after age 30. Like infection and metabolic disease, it is a cumulative factor that may contribute to age-related infertility.