Flashcards in Chapter 9: Architectural Pattern of an Animal Deck (88):
There are 34 major phyla that survived from around 100 phyla that appeared how many years ago during the cambrian explosion?
600 million years
Major body plans result from?
extensive selection and are limiting determinant of future adaptational variants
What are the five grades of organization?
1. Protoplasmic Grade of Organization
2. Cellular Grade of Organization
3.Cell-tissue Grade of Organization
4. Tissue-Organ Grade of Organization
5. Organ-Systems Grade of Organization
-all life functions are within the boundaries of one cell
-protoplasm differentiates into organelles
-an aggregation of cells that are functionally differentiated and a division of labour is evident.
ex: volvox and sponges
cells of the same type group together to perform a common function..making different layers and patterns etc.
-an aggregation of tissues into an organ..
-made up of more than one type
ex: flatworm...their eyespots....proboscis ex
-organs work together to perform some function..
-circulation, digestion, respiration etc
-ex: nemertean: complete digestive system separate from the circulatory system..
Parenchyma is what?(think organs)
the chief functional cells of an organ
What is stroma??
the supportive tissues in an organ
What is symmetry?
correspondence of size and shape of parts on opposite sides of a median plane
any plane passing through the centre divides the body into mirrored halves....good for floating and rolling.....some unicellular forms..rare in animals
types of animals
-body divided into similar halves by more than two planes passing through the longitudinal axis...
-most are sessile..freely floating or weakly swimming animals
-no anterior or posterior end! meaning it can interact with the environment in all directions.
Bilateral Symmetry ??(5)
anterior and posterior?
organism can be divided along a sagittal plane into two mirrored halves.
-directional movement...aka forward
-cephalization! head region having a [ ] of nerve tissue and sense organs
-good for animals moving head first
-differentiation along the anteroposterior axis
back side..upper side
front or belly side
midline of body
parts farther from the middle of body
parts closer to the middle of the body
Frontal Plane? (coronal plane)
divides bilateral body into dorsal and ventral halves
divides body into right and left pieces
divides body into anterior and posterior portions
an internal space
a layer of cells around a fluid filled cavity called a blastocel
no external opening and therefore is not a gut...sponges stop here...and reorganize into an adult form
one side of the blastula pushes inward making a depression...which becomes a cavity....the external opening will become the mouth or anus..
The cavity in the gastrula stage is called?
the outer layer of cells around the blastocoel
Mesoderm cells come from?
3 germ layers
2 germ layers...edno and ecto
What are the four plans for the formation of mesoderm tissue layer?
Acoelomate, Pseudocoelomate, Schizocoelous and Enterocoelous plan. The first three are for protosomes...
mesodermal cells fill up the blastocoel...making the gut the only cavity...
spongy cells called parenchyma fills the space between the ectodermal epidermis and endodermal digestive tract..
transports food and disposal of metabolic waste..
mesodermal cells line the outer edge of the blastocoel not filling the cavity
pseudocoelom is now the blastocoel cavity...since the mesoderm does not fully surround the cavity...
mesodermal cells fill the blastocoel making a solid band of tissue around the gut..
via programmed cell death an opening is made inside the mesodermal band...= coelom
Enterocoelous Plan (for deuterostomes)
cells from the central part of the gut lining grow outward as pouches...expanding into the blastocoel ring eventually enclosing a space...which is the coelom..
pinches off from the gut and binds to mesoderm on all sides..
cavities= Gut and coelom.
Similarities of Schizocoely and Enterocoely plans ?
coelomic cavities bind to mesoderm
lined with peritoneum
mesenteries suspend organs in the coelom..
blastopore becomes the mouth, cleavage is mosaic, if a coelom is present it occurred via schizocoely..
ex: mulluscs, seg worms...
-blastopore becomes anus..
new opening becomes mouth..
food goes in and out the same way
food goes in one way and comes out another.
serial repetition of similar body segments along the longitudinal axis..
Pros of segmentation?
provides greater mobility and complexity of structure and function.
it includes both internal and external structures of many systems..
ex: muscles, blood vessels, nerves and setae..
What are metazoan bodies made of?? (2)
three germ layers and extracellular components.
body fluids and extracellular structural elements
in the body, cells
In closed vascular systems extracellular fluids are divided into?(2)
blood plasma...fluid in blood
interstitial fluid/tissue fluid- occupies the space around cells
Open vascular system?
no true separation of blood plasma and interstitial fluids.
What are the four extracellular structural elements/supportive material of organisms?and what organisms are they related to?
connective tissue (all metazoa)
cartilage (molluscs and chordates)
cuticle (arthropods, nematodes and annelids etc)
These all provide support and protection...and storage for materials and exchange between cells.
Interstitial fluid plays as a medium for?
The germ layers give rise to four types of tissue, what are they?
connective, muscular, epithelial and nervous tissue.
a sheet of cells that covers an external or internal surface..
outside body? protective coating
inside? lines organs of the body cavity, ducts and passageways...also modified into glands which produce hormones enzymes or mucus..
What are the types of epithelial tissue??also the subgroups of the two main types.
1. Simple epithelium :
squamous, cuboidal, columnar
2. Stratified Epithelium:
Simple Squamous Epithelium ?
flattened cells that form a continuous lining of blood capillaries, lungs and other surfaces where diffusion of gases and transport of molecules in and out of cavities occurs..
Simple Cuboidal Epithelium?
short boxlike cells
lines small ducts and tubules
ex: kidneys and salivary glands
secretory or absorptive functions
Simple Columnar Epithelium?
cells are tall and have elongated nuclei
found on highly absorptive surfaces
ex: intestinal tract
microvilli- increase absorptive surface...some are ciliated
Stratified Squamous Epithelium?
two or more layers
withstand abrasion and distortion
basal layer of cells are always dividing..producing cells and pushing them to the surface..
lines oral cavity, esophagus and anal canal...
upper layers= keratin
keratinized cells= no nuclei
Transitional Epithelium ?
accommodates great stretching!
urinary tract and bladder
relaxed state appears to have 4-5 layers..stretched= 2-3
Some common things about all epithelial tissues?
-supported by basement membrane= condensed ground substance of ct which is secreted via ep.tissue and ct.
-blood vessels do not penetrate them...they rely on diffusion of oxygen and nutrients from underlining tissues.
Connective tissue description and what the two types ?
provide binding and supportive functions
made up of few cells, many extracellular fibres and ground substance which the fibres are suspended on.(=matrix)
Loose Connective Tissue (areolar) and Dense connective tissue.
Loose Connective Tissue?
anchors blood vessels, nerves and organs
contains fibroblasts which make fibres and ground subst ct and wandering macrophages.
collagen and thin elastic fibres formed via elastin.
Dense Connective Tissue?
makes tendons, ligaments and fasciae (sheets and bands) around skeletal muscle.
collagenous fibres are really long and tightly packed with little ground substance...many fibres of connective tissue are composed of collagen.....protein of great tensile strength found wherever flexibility and resistance are needed
Other examples of specialized connective tissue?
blood, lymph =vascular tissue, adipose, cartilage and bone
cells in fluid ground substance..plasma! it lacks fibres under regular conditions
semirigid tissue made up of chondrocytes located in pockets called lacunae and collagen and or elastic fibres depending on the type.
have no blood supply therefore nutrients and waste diffuse through ground sub. via surrounding tissue.
strongest of vertebrate connective tissue ..made up of calcified matrix containing salts around collagen fibres.
Small pockets called lacunae within the matrix contain osteocytes aka bone cells which communicate via canaliculi
high concentration of blood vessels in larger channels...like central canals
Muscular Tissue(originates via mesoderm) What are the three types?and a general description of what muscular tissue is !
-most abundant tissue in the body...muscular fibres specialize in contractions
striated= transversely striped with alt dark and light bands
Skeletal , Cardiac and Smooth ( Visceral) Muscle
first two are vertebrate and last is invertebrate
found in both invertebrates and vertebrates
made up of long, cylindrical fibres which are multinucleate cells that reach from one end of the muscle to the other.
appear= series of stripes running across them
voluntary muscle ! contracts via nerve stim
only in vertebrates hearts
cells are shorter than sk muscle and have only one nucleus per cell..
branching network of fibres and individual cells interconnected via junctional discs called intercalated discs..
involuntary bc does not need nerve activity to stim contractions
obliquely striated = inverts
Smooth (Visceral ) Muscle??
no striations of alt shades
both invert and vert
long tapering containing one nucleus
most common type in inverts via body wall musculature and surrounds ducts and sphincters
verts= surrounds blood vessels and internal organs ex: intestines and uterus .
unspecialized cytoplasm of muscles
contractile element in fibres
cell types? 2
reception of stimuli and conduction of impulses from one region to the next
neruons- basic functional unit
neuroglia- nonervous cells that insulate neuron membranes and other supportive functions....myelin sheath
As body size increases......what occurs?
surface area to volume ratios have important consequences for animal respiration, heat etc
surface area increases as the square of body length
volume increase as the cube of body length
A large animal has less ________ compared to its ________ that does a smaller animal. This may be inadequate for what?
surface area, volume
respiration and nutrition by cells located deep within its body.
Flattening or enfolding the body increases ______ seen in _______ or the _________.
surface area, flatworms, digestive tract.
Most animals develop internal transport systems to?
shuttle nutrients, gases and waste products as they become larger.
What are the benefits of being large?
buffers against environmental fluctuations
provides protection against predators and promotes offensive tactics
cost of maintaining body temp is less per gram of body weight than in small animals
energy cost of moving a gram of body weight over a given distance is less for larger animals .