Chapter 13: Class Anthozoa Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 13: Class Anthozoa Deck (35):

Main Characteristics?
-Gastrovascular cavity?? (2) Septa whats up with that? Pairs not? maybe?

- all marine, in deep and shallow...varying in size
-no special organs for respiration or excretion
-Gastrovascular cavity:
-large and partitioned by speta or mesenteries, inward extensions of the body wall...
-septa may be coupled or paired !


What are the three subclasses??

Zoantharia, Cerianthpatharia and Alcyonaria


Sea Anemones?? Whats up with those?
-polyps size /weight
-attach to what? (3)
-crown of tentacles location?
-O2 , waste , pressure?

-Polyps larger and heavier than hydrozoan polyps
-attached to shells, rocks, timber etc by pedal disc
-burrow in mud or sand alt
-crown of tentacles surrounds the flat oral disc
-transports oxygen, removes wastes and maintains fluid pressure for hydrostatic skeleton


Gastrovascular cavity (sea anemones)
-its divided into six pairs of?
-surface area is increased via?
-free edge of each incomplete septum forms? (2)

-septa or mesenteries
-smaller or incomplete septa subdivide the large chambers increasing surface area
-forms a septal filament with nematocysts and gland cells for digestion..


Acontia Threads? (sea anemone)
-equipped with?
-may protrude? for?

-at lower ends of septal filaments, equipped with nematocysts and may protrude through mouth to help secure prey.


What do sea anemones do when in danger???

-water rushes out of pores and the sea anemone contracts to a small size


Feeding behaviour in sea anemones are under?
-Asparagine? function?
-Glutathione? function?

chemical control
-activates feeding causing tentacles to bend toward mouth
- when there are reduced levels of this it induces swallowing..


Longitudinal muscles of the epidermis only occur where? (sea anemone )

-tentacles and oral disc


Longitudinal muscles of the column occur only where? in?
(sea anemones )

-gastrodermal, in septa


Most sea anemones can glide slowly via?

pedal disc


Reproduction in Sea Anemones ?
-sexual reproduction classification?

-dioecious, monoecious


The monoecious species of sea anemones are protandrous which means what?

produce sperm first and eggs later


Gonads are located where in sea anemones ?

margins of septa


Fertilization in sea anemones is ? or?
zygote becomes?

external or in gastrovascular cavity
-ciliated larva


Other forms of reproduction in sea anemones? (4)

pedal laceration, longitudinal and transverse fission and budding.


Hexacorallian Corals?
-physical description/comparison
- the Gastrocavity is ,...what?
-Do they have a pedal disc?
-Secretion ? (support?) Sclerosepta?
- Living tissue?

-members of Scleractinia (order)
-true/stony coral
-miniature sea anemones that live in calcareous cups they secrete.
-Gastrocavity is Hexamerous
-no pedal disc
I> secretes limey skeletal cup with sclerosepta projecting up into the polyp
- living tissue?----- forms over the coral surface...connecting all gastrovascular cavities of the colony !


Tube Anemones and Thorny Corals?
-Septa arrangement?
-Habitat for each?
-live in what kind of temp?

- Ceriantipatharia
-coupled but unpaired septa
-Tube Anemones live in soft sediments...solitary
I> Thorny or Black Corals..are colonial and attach to firm substrata
-both live in warmmer seas...


Alcyonarian Corals ?
-symmetry ?
-tentacle arrangement /amount
-septa arrangement ?
-Colonial or solitary?

-octomerous symmetry
- 8 pinnate tentacles
-8 unpaired complete septa
-all are colonial and communicate via gastrovascular cavities via tubes.


Coral Reefs
-placement of animals and plants are located where?

-above the calcium carbonate deposits...aka limited to the top layer
-great diversity of organisms rivalled by only the rainforest


What type of corals and algae for most of the coral reef?

-Hermatypic corals and coralline algae


Hermatypic corals and coralline algae characteristics ?
-habitat description? temp,water state, location boundaries
-what live in the corals tissue and their function?/ relationship

-require warmth, light and salinity of undiluted sea water
-limited to shallow waters....between 30 degrees north and 30 degrees south latitude
-photosynthetic zooxanthellae live in their tissues
I> providing food for corals and recycle phosphorus and nitrogenous wastes.


What are the four types of reefs?

- Fringing, Barrier Atolls andPatch /Bank reefs.


Fringing Reef?

-near the land with no lagoon or a very narrow lagoon


Barrier Reef?

parallel to shore with a wide and deep lagoon


Atolls Reef?

-encircles a lagoon but not an island, have a steep bank on the seaward slope


Patch or Bank Reefs?

some distance back from any steep slopes (sandy bottom)


What is a reef front also called a fore reef slope ?

side facing the sea


What is a reef crest?

-shallow water or emergent at top of the reef front
-wave action breaks pieces off.
-reef flat toward the shore receives debris and coralline sand.


Coral reefs support a diversity of ?

fish and coral


Few _______ enter or leave the system. Little is lost _________ in ______ among interacting ________.

nutrients, efficiency, recycling, organisms


Nutrients from what two things threaten coral reefs? leading to?

- fertilizer and sewage....via promoting excessive algal growth. possibly some that are not symbiotic.


Higher atmospheric concentrations of what tends to do what to the ocean water and cause what difficulty with corals.

-Carbon dioxide via burning hydrocarbon fuels
-acidify ocean water
I> makes precipitation of CaCO3 by coral more difficult metabolically.


What does the term Coral Bleaching refer to?
-caused by? what changes?
-zooxanthellae ?

-when warmer water damages the photosynthetic mechanism in zooxanthellae
I> harmful oxidants build up and diffuse into coral tissue causing it to turn white and brittle.
- zooxanthellae die or are expelled by the coral....white coral actually makes the situation worst due to reflective colour brining even more light in.


Medical aspects of coral? (3)

-chemical that produces a sunscreen more efficient than any humans have(coral in Great Barrier Reef produce this chemical)
-bone grafting


Cancer and other diseases (corals)?

-chemicals harvested from reef associated species may offer new treatments for leukaemia, skin cancer and tumours..
-Curacin A: treat cancer such as colon, lung and breast.

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