Chapter 9: Biological Diversity Flashcards Preview

Barron's AP Biology > Chapter 9: Biological Diversity > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 9: Biological Diversity Deck (27):
1

Taxonomy

The naming and classification of species.

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Binomial nomenclature

The two-part naming system for species. First is genus, second is species.

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Classifications

Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species.

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Three Domains

Archae, Eukarya, Bacteria (Monera is not used anymore because prokaryotes themselves have a lot of diversity and need to be categorized separately).

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Archaea

Prokaryotes, includes extremophiles (organisms that can live in extreme environments).

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Bacteria

Prokaryotes, often decomposers, and some undergo conjugation.

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Eukarya

Includes all organisms who have nucleus in their cells, as well as the four original kingdoms: protista, plantae, animalia, and fungi.

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Protista

Kingdom that includes all eukaryotes, and organisms that do not fit into the plantae or fungi kingdoms. Can be multi or single celled, and heterotrophs or autotrophs. Some may undergo conjugation, and some may contain serious diseases.

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Fungi

Kingdom that consists of heterotrophs and eukaryotes. Secrete hydrolytic enzymes, and cell walls contain chitin, not cellulose. Important in ecosystem as decomposers.

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Plantae

Kingdom that consists of autotrophic eukaryotes.

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Animalia

Kingdom that consists of heterotrophic multicellular eukaryotes. They reproduce with sexual reproduction and all have a common ancestor.

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Cell

The most basic unit of life.

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Tissue

A collection of cells that perform a similar function.

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Organ

A collection of tissues that work together to perform related functions.

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Primitive Organisms

- No head
- No symmetry
- Two cell layers (ectoderm and endoderm)
- No true tissues
- Life in water
- Sessile
- No organ systems

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Complex Organisms

- Bilateral symmetry
- Has a head
- Three cell layers (ectoderm, endoderm, mesoderm)
- True tissues
- Life on land and water
- Motile
- Many organ systems and specialization

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Endoderm

Innermost layer that eventually develops into the guts and digestive system.

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Ectoderm

Outermost layer that eventually develops into the skin and the nervous system.

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Mesoderm

Middle layer that eventually develops into the blood and bones.

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Bilateral Symmetry

The symmetry over a single line. More complex organisms exhibit this.

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Anterior

Front end.

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Posterior

Back end,

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Phylogeny

Study of the evolutionary history of the relationships between species.

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Phylogenetic Tree or Cladogram

A visual reconstruction of the phylogeny (evolutionary history) of a species.

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Maximum Parsimony

The principle phylogenists usually follow when making phylogenies. Make the phylogeny the simplest possible that still coincides with the facts.

26

Shared Ancestral Trait

A characteristic that an organism shares with its common ancestors.

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Shared Derived Trait

A characteristic that an organism does not share with their ancestors, thus being a new trait that suddenly appeared.