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Flashcards in Chapter 9 Islam Deck (88):
1

Islam Design

does not denote a specific time in history
-Existed from the 7th century to present
-Does not denote a specific location
-does not denote a religion: because islamic design covers all aspects of life, including buildings, interiors and decorative elements design for secular use.

2

Factors that unified Islamic Design

culture, geographic, religious, political, temporal

3

Some of its characteristics

geometric
-sometimes having representational ornament
-vegetative or agricultural motif can be found in come islamic art

4

Islamic lands to be called the Rug belt.

-ties to nomadic past ion which personal belongings had to be.
-portable and durable, providing a waving tradition of hand knotting
-terrain and climate suitable for sheep grazing provides supplies of wool

5

Flux:

used to make linen

6

cotton: was intro ducted by?

India

7

Silk was from?

China

8

What does islam mean?

submission to god
-Prophet Muhammed founded islam in 622AD
-Islamic design could not have existed before that date
-Islamic design was devised to reveal islam on earth (similar to Gothic style strived to reveal christianity)

9

Koran:

sacred book of Islam

10

5 Obligations of Islam:

1. Profession of faith
2. Charity to the poor
3. Daytime fasting during Ramadan
4. Pilgrimage to Mecca once in lifetime
5. ritual prayer, 5x a day, facing Mecca

11

Mosque:

A building dedicated for public worship

12

What is the Largest Mosque?

The Great Mosque at Sammara located North of Baghdad, 9th C.

13

2 major sects in Islam:

Sunni and the Shia

14

The Sunni:

were orthodox Muslims who held that, after Muhammad's Death, leadership of the Islamic community was elective

15

The Shia:

held that Islamic leadership could only be hereditary, that is, only direct decedents of Muhammad could rule.

16

Sufism:

mystical and ascetic order that emerged from the Shia sect. later integrated into Sunni sects

17

Sufis were not only inclined to value the arts, but also to value the art of a specific kind:

ecstatic, allegorical, metaphorical, and rich ith layers of religious reference not immediately obvious.

18

Structure material varied depending on economic structure:

-Good times: use of stone, high levels of ornament, preservation of structures, precious and semi precious metals

-Times of despair: use of mud brick, low levels of ornament (if any) destruction of structures to re-use materials, precious + semi precious metals melted dow,

19

The most important building types of Islamic Architecture are?

religious buildings such as
-mosque
-the shrine
-the covent
-the mausoleum
-religious school called the MADRASA

20

Religious School Name?

Madrasa

21

Minaret:

a slender tower attached to -or near- a mosque from which the faithful can be called to prayer.

22

Within the Mosque (parts that make up the mosque)

-Central area, either open or covered, for praying
-a prayer niche or Mihrab (indicate direction of Mecca)
-Pulpit or Minbar: stood adjacent to the prayer niche, and a waster basins as nearby for ritual washing before prayers.

23

Mihrab:

indicates the direction of Mecca
-highly decorative, part of mosque interior

24

Minbar:

a prayer niche with water basin nearby
-highly decorated, carries honoring sultan during which rein it was constructed.

25

The Suleymaniye Mosque was built by who?

Built by Architect Sinan, he was chief architect for a series of powerful sultans, his previous works were mechanic and engineer.

26

Architecture of the Suleymaniye Mosque

Flooded with light
-Use of Corinthian columns
-Interior surfaces enriched with great quantities of tiles
-Carved wood shutters and doors, stained glass, carpets
-mosque lamps and Koran manuscripts and stand to hold them.

27

Famous Tile Maker?

Iznik

28

2 chief materials used in Suleymaniye Mosque

-Ivory colored stone on exterior
-dark gray lead for roofing

29

Horseshoe Arch

a semicircular shape above straight piers that narrows further below its spring line (imaginary horizontal line above which arch begins to curve).
-Some had round or pointed tips and were Foliate or cusped with small arcs or scallops cut into their intrados.

30

The Topkapi Palace home of Ottoman Sultans 15th C. -19th C.

Clear organization
-plan is pf scattered pavilions, kiosks, halls, harems, libraries, and service buildings, all meet in courtyard.
-Gigantic kitchen
-Tazar

31

Tazar:

slightly raised seating platform

32

The Private House:

From street view, presented plain blank walls
-Interiors would be built around as many as 4 courtyards
marble floors, high decorative ceilings.

33

The Tent

Islamic Tradition of Nomadic life, served not by permanent structure

34

The Famous Ardabile Carpet:

36Ft Long, too long to fit inside tent, must have been used outside

35

Islamic Ornament:

-representative of luxurious platen life, but highly stylized
-animal forms used less often
-human forms used scarcely
-allah NEVER USED
-geometry was a natural alternative to the depictions of humans and animals, squares, rectangles, hexagons, octagons, stars, infinite variations of forms are seen.

36

Ceramic and Textile Design

rosettes, pearls, dots, hatchings, diamonds, circles, stars, vase forms were used.

37

Diaper pattern:

checkerboards of lozenge shapes

38

Arabesque:

fanciful with interlocking vines (based on plate life)

39

Sunni Ornament:

Strictly opposed to representation of living things in art, on the basis that they were Idolitrous. (meaning no idols)

40

Shia Ornament:

had more liberal artistic views
-allowed floral, animal, and human subject manner
-real & imaginary animals
-humans, birds, leaves, flowers ives, and trees were often incorporated into patterns or arabesques.

41

Ibex:

a royal symbol

42

Lion symbolizes

power

43

Equestrian subjects symbolize

common

44

Pine cones symbolize

good luck

45

Plaster:

composite of soft material that hardens after being spread in place, while soft can be carved and decorated

46

Stucco:

slow setting kind of plaster, cheap, easy to apply, extremely popular, ornamentation includes cross hatching and geometric vegetation forms

47

Muqarina:

specialized used of plasterwork, AKA as honeycomb work.
-Consist of superimposed tiers of concave shapes, like a great network of adjacent pendentives.

48

Woodwork, an important part of Islamic building and interiors. When available it was used for

-door panels
-wall panels
-tie beams
-furniture
-chest
-koran covers
Within carved wood pieces, inlay of ivory, bone and mother of pearl

49

Open Grille:

turned wood members made into a screen, used on mosque to separate a prince sanctum from the congregation

50

Mashrabiya:

window grille
-put over windows so that ladies of the sultans house could look out without being seen from public
-also shields interior from extreme sun exposure and gives touch of mystery

51

Tile

Islamic design is highly imaginable without the profuse and virtuoso use of glazed ceramic tile

52

2 basic types of tile designs:

1. Designs made by the outline of the tile themselves
2. those in which the design extends across number of tiles

53

Mosaics used where?

on interior and exteriors, flooring and walls

54

What kind of tile did the grandest mosques use?

Glass-gold mosaics

55

Suffa:

long, low seating benches/source for english sofa

56

Pushti:

small mats used mostly as sitting carpets

57

Balisht:

pillow covers used in same manner as carpets

58

thrones:

were for rulers and people of authority

59

beds:

were not used for sleeping, sleeping was customary on the suffa cushions or carpeted floors

60

Maqsuras

screened enclosures

61

3 most decorative arts

Ceramics
metalwork
textiles

62

materials

wood, metals, ivory, mosaics, tile, lacquer, calligraphy, glass, and rock crystal

63

Earthware:

was made in tan color

64

fritware:

a white ceramic made from white clay, crushed quartz and glass, developed as an imitation of Chinese ceramics

65

Mina'i ware

AKA Haft range: meaning 7 colors ceramic

66

Lajvardina:

similar to Mina'i sober colors and abstract designs

67

Iznik:

most famous kinds of Islamic tiles, clouds, waves, clusters of grapes, trios of balls, adopted from Chinese, arabesque, scrolls chevrons, geo-vegational depictions, traditional

68

Metal ewers:

used in mosques to cleanse in before prayer

69

Techniques used for metal designs

casting, hammering, embossing, filigree, lost wax (circle perdue egyptian)

70

Damascening:

form of decoration by inlay, beating thin gold or solver wires into tiny groves that have been cut into surface of the base metal.

71

Niello:

silver compound with a lustrous black appearance: another form of inlay

72

3 basic types of traditional woven carpets

-persian
-turkish
-chinese

73

4 basic types of carpet (before machines)

-embroidered and needle work
-flat woven
-tapestry woven
-pile

74

Islamic carpets were:

cut pile carpets

75

Quality of carpet is based on what?

density of knots per sq. inch most common 100

76

Shape ratio:

length of carpet divided by width

77

Palace carpets

larger than 14' x 24'

78

Keleh:

traditional village carpets, made to fit long narrow rooms

79

Kernarehs

long narrow rugs AKA runners

80

Scatter rugs:

used as bed cover or furniture cover AKA throw rugs

81

Prayer Rug:

made of silk, usually shaped like mihrab and points towards mecca

82

Gul or Gol:

a geometric emblem "flower or rose"

83

Boteh:

motif familiar from the paisley pattern

84

Tree-of-Life:

motif symbolizes the life force in the form of a tree, sometimes with fruits and birds int he branches

85

Vase of immortality:

motif shows foliage sprouting from a case rather than from the ground

86

herati:

floral representation

87

hands of fatima

outline of pair of hands near the tops of some prayer rugs

88

Palmette:

lotus floral motif