Chapter 9 - Substance Abuse and Dependence Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 9 - Substance Abuse and Dependence Deck (46):
1

substance-induced disorders

Disorders, such as intoxication, that can be induced by using psychoactive substances.

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intoxication

A state of drunkenness or of being "high."

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substance use disorders

Disorders characterized by maladaptive use of psychoactive substances (e.g., substance dependence)

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substance abuse

The continued use of a psychoactive drug despite the knowledge that it is causing social, occupational, psychological, or physical problems.

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substance dependence

Impaired control over the suse of a psychoactive substance; often characterized by physiological dependence.

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tolerance

Physical habituation to a drug such that with frequent use, higher doses are needed to achieve the same effects.

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withdrawal syndrome

(also called abstinence syndrome)

A characteristic cluster of symptoms following the sudden reduction or cessation of use of a psychoactive substance after physiological dependence has developed.

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addiction

Impaired control over the use of a chemical substance, accompanied by physiological dependence.

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physiological dependence

A condition in which the dru user's body comes to depend on a steady supply of the substance.

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psychological dependence

Compulusive use of a substance to meet a psychological need.

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depressant

A drug that lowers the level of activity of the central nervous system (CNS).

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alcoholism

An alcohol dependence disorder or addiction that results in serious personal social, occupational, or health problems.

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barbiturates

Sedative drugs that are depressants with high addictive potential

(e.g., amobarbital, pentobarbital, phenobarbital, and secobarbital, are depressants or sedatives; their medical uses include easing anxiety and tension, dulling pain, treating epilepsy, and high blood pressure.  Alcohol is also considered a barbiturate).

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narcotics

Drugs that are used medically for pain relief but also have strong addictive potential.

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endorphins

Natural substances that function as neurotransmitters in the brain and are similar in their effects to opiods.

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morphine

A strongly addictive narcotic derived from the opium poppy that relieves pain and induces feelings of well-being.

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heroin

A narcotic derived from morphine that has strong addictive properties.

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stimulants

Psychoactive substances that increase the activity of the central nervous system.

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amphetamines

A class of synthetic stimulants that activate the CNS, producing heightened states of arousal and feelings of pleasure.

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amphetamine psychosis

A psychotic state characterized by hallucinations and delusions, induced by ingestion of amphetamines.

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cocaine

A stimulant derived from the leaves of the coca plant.

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crack

The hardened, smokable form of cocaine.

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hallucinogens

Substances that cause hallucinations.

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marijuana

A hallucinogenic drug derived from the leaves and stems of the plant Cannabis sativa.

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detoxification

The process of ridding the system of alcohol or other drugs under supervised conditions.

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methadone

A synthetic opiate that is used to help people who are addicted to heroin to abstain from it without experiencing a withdrawal syndrome.

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naltrexone

A drug that blocks the high from alcohol as well as opiates.

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How does the DSM distinguish between substance abuse disorders and substance dependence disorders?

According to the DSM, a substance abuse disorder is a pattern of recurrent use of a substance that repeatedly leads to damaging consequences.  Substance dependence disorders involve impaired control over use of a substance and often include features of physiological dependence on the substance, as manifest by the development of tolerance or an abstinence (withdrawal) syndrome.

29

What do we mean by the terms addiction and psychological dependence?

Although different people use the term addiction differently, it is used here to refer to the habitual or compulsive use of a substance combined with the development of physiological dependence.  Psychological dependence is the compulsive use of a substance, with or without the development of physiological dependence.

30

What are depressants?

Depressants are drugs that depress or slow down nervous system activity.  The include alcohol, sedatives, minor tranquilizers, and opioids.  Their effects include intoxication, impaired coordination, slurred speech, and impaired intellectual functioning.

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What are some of the effects linked to chronic alcohol abuse?

Alcohol-induced persisting amnestic disorder (Korsakoff's syndrome), cirrhosis of the liver, fetal alcohol syndrome, and other physical health problems.

32

What are barbiturates?

Barbiturates are depressants or sedatives that have been used medically for short-term relief of anxiety and treatment of epilepsy, among other uses.

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What are opioids?

Opioids such as morphine and heroin are derived from the opium poppy.  Others are synthesized.  Opioids are used medically for relief of pain and are strongly addictive.

34

What are stimulants?

Stimulants increase the activity of the CNS.  Amphetamines and cocaine are stimulants that increase the availability of neurotransmitters in the brain, leading to heightened states of arousal and pleasurable feelings.  High doses can produce psychotic reactions that mimic features of paranoid schizophrenia.  Habitual cocaine use can lead to avariety of health problems, and an overdose can cause sudden death.  Repeated use of nicotine, a mild stimulant found in tobacco, leads to physiological dependence.

35

What are hallucinogens?

Hallucinogens are drugs that distort sensory perceptions and can induce hallucinations.  They include LSD, psilocybin, and mescaline.  Other drugs with similar effects are cannabis (marijuana) and phenocyclidine (PCP).  Although these drugs may not lead to phsiolgocial dependence, psychological dependence may occur.

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How does the biological perspective view the causes of substance abuse and dependence?

The biological perspective focuses on uncovering the biological pathways that may explain mechanisms of physiological dependence.  The biological perspective spawns the disease model, which posits that alcoholism and other forms of substance abuse are disease processes.

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How does the behavioural/learning perspective view the causes of substance abuse and dependence?

Learning perspectives view substance abuse disorders as learned patterns of behaviour, with roles for classical and operant conditioning and observational learning.

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How does the cognitive perspective view the causes of substance abuse and dependence?

Cognitive perspectives focus on roles of attitudes, beliefs, and expectancies in accounting for substance use and abuse.

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How does the cognitive perspective view the causes of substance abuse and dependence?

Cognitive perspectives focus on roles of attitudes, beliefs, and expectancies in accounting for substance use and abuse.

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How does the sociocultural perspective view the causes of substance abuse and dependence?

Sociocultural perspectives emphasize the cultural, group, and social factors that underlie drug-use patterns, including the role of peer pressure in determining adolescent drug use.

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How does the psychodynamic perspective view the causes of substance abuse and dependence?

Psychodynamic theorists view the problem of substance abuse, such as excessive drinking and habitual smoking, as signs of an oral fixation.

42

What treatment approaches are used to help people overcome problems of substance abuse and dependence?

Biological approaches

Biological approaches to substance abuse disorders include detoxification; the use of drugs such as disufiram, methadone, naltrexone, and antidepressants; and nicotine replacement therapy.

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What treatment approaches are used to help people overcome problems of substance abuse and dependence?

Residential approaches

Residential treatment approaches include hospitals and therapeutic residences.

44

What treatment approaches are used to help people overcome problems of substance abuse and dependence?

Nonprofessional support groups

Nonprofessional support groups, such as Alcoholics Anonymous, promote abstinence within a supportive group setting.

45

What treatment approaches are used to help people overcome problems of substance abuse and dependence?

Psychodynamic approaches

Psychodynamic therapists focus on uncovering the inner conflicts originating in childhood that they believe lie at the root of substance abuse problems.

46

Regardless of the initial success of a treatment technique, relapse remains a pressing problem in treating people with substance abuse problems.

Describe relapse prevention.

Relapse-prevention training employs cognitive-behavioural techniques to help recovering substance abusers cope with high-risk situations and prevent lapses from becoming relapses by interpreting lapses in less damaging ways.