Chapter One: Atomic Structure Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter One: Atomic Structure Deck (48):
1

Electron weight

1/1800 of a proton

2

Are electrons and protons electrostatic?

Yes

3

What is Bohr's model?

Discovered in 1913 it is the structure that suggested that electrons orbited around the nucleus in definite paths called shells

4

What is the most current model of the atom

Schrodinger

5

Ion

An atom that has either lost or gained an electron

6

Cation

Have lost electrons so they end up with a positive charge

7

Anion

Gained electrons so they have a negative charge

8

Macromolecules and examples

A very large molecule ie; synthetic polymers, proteins and DNA

9

Nanometre

Is 1 billionth of a metre

10

Conversion table

1m = 10^2cm = 10^3mm = 10^6micro = 10^9nm
1nm = 10^-9m = 10^-6cm

11

What is nanotechnology?

Is working with technology at a nanoscale to create a cleaner, safer, longer lasting and smarter products for the future.

12

What does nanoscience deal with?

Directly with atoms, molecules and macromolecules

13

Energy properties

Energy is not continuous but comes in quanta and particles have wave properties.

14

Quanta

Small packets of energy

15

Molecular manufacturing

When scientists assemble materials atom by atom, to make atoms into specific molecules and create a specific product.

16

Isotope

Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons

17

Isotope properties

Have similar chemical properties due to electron structure
Have different physical properties due to their different masses

18

Aufbau's rule

In ground state electrons fill orbitals of lowest energy level before occupying higher energy levels.

19

Ground state

Electrons are in their most stable configuration

20

Hund's rule

Every orbital in a subshell is singly occupied with one electron before any one orbital is doubly occupied.

21

Filling subshells rule

Fully filled subshells are more stable than half filled subshells which are more stable than partially filled subshells

22

What causes colour in fire?

Is the way the electrons are arranged around the nucleus of an atom

23

What does arrangement of electrons determine?

The properties and behaviour of elements and the materials made from them

24

What happens when a white light is passed trhough a prism?

It creates a continuous spectrum of colour

25

Why does an element emit light when heated?

Becuase the atoms absorb energy then when they return to ground state they release the energy as light.

26

How do you create an emission spectrum

By passing the light emitted by an element through a prism.

27

What does an emission spectrum show?

The lines correspond to the energy difference between electron shell levels

28

What is the difference between a continuous spectrum and the emission spectrum?

The continuous spectrum is formed when a light is passed through a prism whereas the emission spectrum is the light emitted from an element that has been passed through a prism.

29

Excited electrons in Bohr's model

In Bohr's model the electron float around an orbit of the nucleus in their specific energy levels, then they jump from their ground state up to the next shell and when they return the energy released is produced as light

30

How can you identify an element based on the light it releases?

Because there are only specific energy levels released they correspond to a line on the emission spectrum.

31

Shells capacity

2n^2 (n is the shell)
The outer shell never has more than 8 electrons in the first 20 elements

32

What are the limitations of Bohr's model?

The electrons don't actually travel in paths
The filling order has exceptions

33

When and who discovered the quantum theory?

Erwin Schrodinger in 1926

34

What is the Quantum Mechanical Model?

Is a complex mathematical model based on particles such as electrons showing wave like behaviour

35

What makes up the Quantum Mechanical Model?

Shells, subshells and orbitals

36

Shells

Shell 2, shell 3 etc

37

Subshells

s,p,d,f
Shell 2 = 2 subshells

38

Orbitals

What make up the subshells

39

Plum pudding model

Sir J.J Thompson suggested that an atom is a positively charged sphere that had electrons embedded in the sphere discovered in 1897

40

Subatomic particles

Electrons
Neutrons
Protons

41

Molecules

Are substances that consist of 2 or more atoms chemically combined
The types of atoms, size, arrangement and shape significantly impact the properties of materials

42

Potential risks of nanotechnology

Miniaturised weapons
Designing biological organisms

43

Excited states

When an atom moves to a higher energy level than the ground state by absorbing energy
The outermost energy electron moves to a higher subshell

44

Exceptions to the filling rule

Chromium 24 and copper 29
chromium fills to 3d^5
copper fills to 3d^10

45

Stability of shells

Filled shells are more stable than half filled shells which are more stable than partially filled shells

46

Schrodinger's model

Proposed that electrons would move around in regions of space called orbitals

47

Max. electrons a subshell can hold

s - 2
p - 6
d - 10
f - 14

48

How many electrons in an orbital?

0, 1 or 2