Flashcards in Chapter Test #02 Deck (63):
Neologism is a new word, new expression or a new meaning of a word.
Etymology is the study of the origin and history of a word.
Coinage is the invention of totally new words. Most are typically derived from invented trade names.
Provide examples for coinage.
nylon, zipper, kleenex, band-aid, xerox, google
Eponyms are new words based on the name of a person or a place.
Provide examples for eponyms.
sandwich, jeans, fahrenheit, volt
Borrowing is the taking over of words from other language. English has adopted a vast number of words from other countries.
What language is armada borrowed from?
What language is boondock borrowed from?
What language is croissant borrowed from?
What language is dope borrowed from?
What language is tattoo borrowed from?
What language is lilac borrowed from?
What language is piano borrowed from?
What language is pretzel borrowed from?
What language is sofa borrowed from?
What language is tycoon borrowed from?
What language is yogurt borrowed from?
What Hungarian words were borrowed from English?
sport, klub, futbol
What Japanese words were borrowed from English?
Define loan translation.
Loan translation is a direct translation of the element of a word into the borrowing language.
Provide the loan translations of skyscraper in French.
Provide the loan translations of skyscraper in Dutch.
Provide the loan translations of skyscraper in German.
wolkenkratzer ("cloud scraper")
Provide the loan translations of boyfriend in Japanese.
Provide the loan translations of boyfriend in Chinese.
Compounding is joining of two separate word to produce a single form.
Name the three semantic relations of compounding
Endocentric compounding, exocentric compounding and coordinate compounding.
Define endocentric compounding.
Endocentric compound is where the head name is the type while the compound name is the subtype.
Provide examples for endocentric compounding.
Define exocentric compounding.
Exocentric compounding is where the type is not represented.
Provide examples for exocentric compounding.
deadhead, redhead, pickpocket
Define coordinate compounding.
Coordinate compounding is where both are equal heads.
Provide examples for coordinate compounding.
teacher-student, bittersweet, producer-director
Define rhyming compounds.
Rhyming compounds are from two rhyming words.
Provide examples of rhyming compounds.
Blending is the combination of two separate forms to produce a new word.
Provide examples for blending.
gasohol, smog, infotainment, podcast, simulcast, telecast, telethon, webinar, Franglais, Spanglish, telex, bit, modem
Clipping is shortening a polysyllabic word.
Name the three types of clipping.
Fore-clipping, middle clipping and back-clipping.
Provide an example for fore-clipping.
gator from alligator
Provide an example for back-clipping
gas from gasoline
Provide an example for middle clipping
flu from influenza
Hypocorism is reducing a word and adding "-y" or "-ie". This is favored in British and Australian English.
Backformation is when a type of a word is reduced to another type.
Provide examples for backformation.
emote from emotion, opt from option and televise from television
Conversion is a change in the function of a word.
Provide examples for conversion.
bottle, butter, dust, chair, buy, guess, hit, impact, must, spy, printout, wannabe, stand-up
Define stress shift.
Stress shift is a change in stress pronunciation.
Provide examples for stress shift.
record, perfect, concrete
Acronyms are words that are formed from the initials of a set of words.
Enumerate the three types of acronyms.
Acronym, initialism, pseudo-initialism
Define and provide examples for acronym (type).
Acronyms are pronounced as single word. Examples are zip, laser, radar.
Define and provide examples for initialism.
Initialisms are pronounced as sequence of letters. Examples are FBI, DNA, ATM, PIN.
Define and provide examples for pseudo-initialism.
Pseudo-initialism consists of a sequence of characters that form a longer phrase. Examples are URAQT, CU and IOU.
Derivation is composed of large numbers of small "bits" of the English language, generally ascribed to affixes.
Provide examples for infixes.
absogodalutely, singabloodypore, godtripledammit
What is the infix used by Kahmu language
What is the expanded form of scuba?
self-contained underwater breathing apparatus
What is the expanded form of laser?
light amplification by stimulated emission radiation
What is the expanded form of radar?
radio detection and ranging
What is the Spanish for "moment of truth"?
momento de la verdad