Chapter Test #02 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter Test #02 Deck (63):
1

Define neologism.

Neologism is a new word, new expression or a new meaning of a word.

2

Define etymology.

Etymology is the study of the origin and history of a word.

3

Define coinage.

Coinage is the invention of totally new words. Most are typically derived from invented trade names.

4

Provide examples for coinage.

nylon, zipper, kleenex, band-aid, xerox, google

5

Define eponyms.

Eponyms are new words based on the name of a person or a place.

6

Provide examples for eponyms.

sandwich, jeans, fahrenheit, volt

7

Define borrowing.

Borrowing is the taking over of words from other language. English has adopted a vast number of words from other countries.

8

What language is armada borrowed from?

Spanish

9

What language is boondock borrowed from?

Filipino

10

What language is croissant borrowed from?

French

11

What language is dope borrowed from?

Dutch

12

What language is tattoo borrowed from?

Tahitian

13

What language is lilac borrowed from?

Persian

14

What language is piano borrowed from?

Italian

15

What language is pretzel borrowed from?

German

16

What language is sofa borrowed from?

Arabic

17

What language is tycoon borrowed from?

Japanese

18

What language is yogurt borrowed from?

Turkish

19

What Hungarian words were borrowed from English?

sport, klub, futbol

20

What Japanese words were borrowed from English?

suupaaamaaketto, taipuraitaa

21

Define loan translation.

Loan translation is a direct translation of the element of a word into the borrowing language.

22

Provide the loan translations of skyscraper in French.

gratte-ciel ("scrape-sky")

23

Provide the loan translations of skyscraper in Dutch.

wolkenkrabber ("glout-scratcher")

24

Provide the loan translations of skyscraper in German.

wolkenkratzer ("cloud scraper")

25

Provide the loan translations of boyfriend in Japanese.

boyifurendo

26

Provide the loan translations of boyfriend in Chinese.

nan pengyu

27

Define compounding.

Compounding is joining of two separate word to produce a single form.

28

Name the three semantic relations of compounding

Endocentric compounding, exocentric compounding and coordinate compounding.

29

Define endocentric compounding.

Endocentric compound is where the head name is the type while the compound name is the subtype.

30

Provide examples for endocentric compounding.

teapot, fog-lamp

31

Define exocentric compounding.

Exocentric compounding is where the type is not represented.

32

Provide examples for exocentric compounding.

deadhead, redhead, pickpocket

33

Define coordinate compounding.

Coordinate compounding is where both are equal heads.

34

Provide examples for coordinate compounding.

teacher-student, bittersweet, producer-director

35

Define rhyming compounds.

Rhyming compounds are from two rhyming words.

36

Provide examples of rhyming compounds.

lovey-dovey, chiller-killer

37

Define blending.

Blending is the combination of two separate forms to produce a new word.

38

Provide examples for blending.

gasohol, smog, infotainment, podcast, simulcast, telecast, telethon, webinar, Franglais, Spanglish, telex, bit, modem

39

Define clipping.

Clipping is shortening a polysyllabic word.

40

Name the three types of clipping.

Fore-clipping, middle clipping and back-clipping.

41

Provide an example for fore-clipping.

gator from alligator

42

Provide an example for back-clipping

gas from gasoline

43

Provide an example for middle clipping

flu from influenza

44

Define hypocorism.

Hypocorism is reducing a word and adding "-y" or "-ie". This is favored in British and Australian English.

45

Define backformation

Backformation is when a type of a word is reduced to another type.

46

Provide examples for backformation.

emote from emotion, opt from option and televise from television

47

Define conversion.

Conversion is a change in the function of a word.

48

Provide examples for conversion.

bottle, butter, dust, chair, buy, guess, hit, impact, must, spy, printout, wannabe, stand-up

49

Define stress shift.

Stress shift is a change in stress pronunciation.

50

Provide examples for stress shift.

record, perfect, concrete

51

Define acronyms

Acronyms are words that are formed from the initials of a set of words.

52

Enumerate the three types of acronyms.

Acronym, initialism, pseudo-initialism

53

Define and provide examples for acronym (type).

Acronyms are pronounced as single word. Examples are zip, laser, radar.

54

Define and provide examples for initialism.

Initialisms are pronounced as sequence of letters. Examples are FBI, DNA, ATM, PIN.

55

Define and provide examples for pseudo-initialism.

Pseudo-initialism consists of a sequence of characters that form a longer phrase. Examples are URAQT, CU and IOU.

56

Define derivation.

Derivation is composed of large numbers of small "bits" of the English language, generally ascribed to affixes.

57

Provide examples for infixes.

absogodalutely, singabloodypore, godtripledammit

58

What is the infix used by Kahmu language

"-rn-"

59

What is the expanded form of scuba?

self-contained underwater breathing apparatus

60

What is the expanded form of laser?

light amplification by stimulated emission radiation

61

What is the expanded form of radar?

radio detection and ranging

62

What is the Spanish for "moment of truth"?

momento de la verdad

63

What is the expanded form of DNA?

deoxyribonucleic acid