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Flashcards in Chapters 1 & 2 Deck (39)
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1

Anthropology

A discipline that studies humans, focusing on the study of differences and similarities, both biological and cultural, in human populations. It is concerned with typical biological and cultural characteristics of human populations in all periods and in all parts of the world.

2

Applied (practicing) anthropology

The branch that concerns itself with applying anthropological knowledge to achieve practical goals, usually in the service of an agency outside the traditional academic setting.

3

Archeology

The branch that seeks to construct the daily life and customs of peoples who lived in the past and to trace and explain cultural changes. Often lacking written records for study, scientists must try to reconstruct history from the material remains of human cultures.

4

Biological (physical) anthropology

The study of humans as biological organisms, dealing with the emergence and evolution of humans and with contemporary biological variations among human populations.

5

Cross-cultural researcher

An ethnologist who uses ethnographic data about many societies to test possible explanations of cultural variation to discover general patterns about cultural traits - what is universal, what is variable, why traits vary, and what the consequences of the variability might be.

6

Cultural anthropology

The study of cultural variation and universals in the past and present.

7

Descriptive (structural) linguistics

The study of how languages are constructed.

8

Ethnographer

A person who spends some time living with, interviewing, and observing a group of people to describe their customs.

9

Ethnography

A description of a society's customary behaviors and ideas.

10

Ethnohistorian

An ethnologist who uses historical documents to study how a particular culture has changed over time.

11

Ethnology

The study of how and why recent cultures differ and are similar.

12

Fossils

The hardened remains or impressions of plants and animals that lived in the past.

13

Historical archaeology

A specialty that studies the material remains of recent peoples who left written records.

14

Historical linguistics

The study of how languages change over time.

15

Holistic

Refers to an approach that studies many aspects of a multifaceted system.

16

Homo sapiens

All living people belong to one biological species which means that all human populations on earth can successfully interbreed. The first may have emerged 200,000 years ago.

17

Human paleontology

The study of the emergence of humans and their later physical evolution, also called paleoanthropology.

18

Human variation

The study of how and why contemporary human populations vary biologically.

19

Prehistory

The time before written records.

20

Primates

A member of the mammalian order, divided into the two suborders of prosimians and anthropoids.

21

Primatologists

People who study primates.

22

Sociolinguistics

The study of cultural and subcultural patterns of speaking in different social contexts.

23

Acculturation

The process of extensive borrowing of aspects of culture in the context of superordinate - subordinate relations between societies usually occurs as the result of external pressure.

24

Adaptive customs

Cultural traits that enhance survival and reproductive success in a particular environment.

25

Cultural relativism

The attitude that a society's customs and ideas should be viewed within the context of that society's problems and opportunities.

26

Culture

The set of learned behaviors and ideas including beliefs, attitudes, values, and ideals that are characteristic of a particular society or population.

27

Diffusion

The borrowing of one society of a cultural trait belonging to another society as a result of contact between the two societies.

28

Ethnocentric

Refers to judgment of other cultures solely in terms of one's own culture.

29

Ethnocentrism

The attitude that other societies customs and ideas can be judged in the context of one's own culture.

30

Ethnogenesis

The process of the creation of a new culture.