Chapters 31, 32, 33 and 48 Flashcards Preview

Anatomy & Physiology II > Chapters 31, 32, 33 and 48 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapters 31, 32, 33 and 48 Deck (92):
1

What is lymph composed of?

Clear, watery appearing fluid found in the lymphatic vessels and are isotonic

2

What is interstitial fluid composed of?

Fluid spaces between cells that has lower protein concentrations

3

What absorbs fats and other nutrients and are found in the small intestine?

Lacteals

4

What is the difference between lymphatic and veins?

Lymphatic vessels have thinner walls, more valves, contain lymph nodes. As the diameter of the lymphatic vessels increases, the walls become thicker

5

What are the functions of the lymphatic system?

Maintain fluid balance in the internal environment, it returns certain substances to the general circulation, and lymph vessels act as drains to collect excess tissue fluid and return it to the venous tissue.

6

What are the lymph organs?

Tonsils, thymus, spleen and bone marrow

7

Where do the lymph ducts drain into?

From the upper right quadrant empties into the right lymphatic duct and then into the subclavian vein.
From the rest of the body, it empties into the thoracic duct

8

What is the percentage of total proteins that leak out and return via lymphatic vessels?

50%

9

What establishes the lymph pressure gradient?

Process of inspiration.

10

What increases the flow of lymph?

Skeletal muscle contraction

11

What is the location of the spleen?

Behind the fundus of the stomach and just above the left kidney.

12

What are the functions of the spleen?

Defense, tissue repair, hematopoietic, red blood cell and platelet destruction, blood reservoir.

13

What does the spleen consist of?

Red and white pulp. White pulp is clusters of lymphocytes. Red pulp is a network of fine reticular fibers submerged in blood.

14

What would happen if spleen was ruptured?

Patient would have extremely low blood pressure and internal bleeding would present.

15

What is the primary organ of the lymphatic system?

Thymus

16

What happens to the thymus as we get older?

Turns to adipose tissue

17

Where is the thymus gland located?

The mediastinum

18

What purpose does the thymus have in youth?

T-cells mature and differentiate here.

19

What hormones does the thymus produce?

Thymosin, thymulin, thymopoietin, thymocyte humoral factor.

20

What establishes the lymph pressure gradient?

Process of inspiration.

21

What increases the flow of lymph?

Skeletal muscle contraction

22

What is the location of the spleen?

Behind the fundus of the stomach and just above the left kidney.

23

What are the functions of the spleen?

Defense, tissue repair, hematopoietic, red blood cell and platelet destruction, blood reservoir.

24

What does the spleen consist of?

Red and white pulp. White pulp is clusters of lymphocytes. Red pulp is a network of fine reticular fibers submerged in blood.

25

What would happen if spleen was ruptured?

Patient would have extremely low blood pressure and internal bleeding would present.

26

What is the primary organ of the lymphatic system?

Thymus

27

What happens to the thymus as we get older?

Turns to adipose tissue

28

Where is the thymus gland located?

The mediastinum

29

What purpose does the thymus have in youth?

T-cells mature and differentiate here.

30

What hormones does the thymus produce?

Thymosin, thymulin, thymopoietin, thymocyte humoral factor.

31

What establishes the lymph pressure gradient?

Process of inspiration.

32

What increases the flow of lymph?

Skeletal muscle contraction

33

What is the location of the spleen?

Behind the fundus of the stomach and just above the left kidney.

34

What are the functions of the spleen?

Defense, tissue repair, hematopoietic, red blood cell and platelet destruction, blood reservoir.

35

What does the spleen consist of?

Red and white pulp. White pulp is clusters of lymphocytes. Red pulp is a network of fine reticular fibers submerged in blood.

36

What would happen if spleen was ruptured?

Patient would have extremely low blood pressure and internal bleeding would present.

37

What is the primary organ of the lymphatic system?

Thymus

38

What happens to the thymus as we get older?

Turns to adipose tissue

39

Where is the thymus gland located?

The mediastinum

40

What purpose does the thymus have in youth?

T-cells mature and differentiate here.

41

What hormones does the thymus produce?

Thymosin, thymulin, thymopoietin, thymocyte humoral factor.

42

What establishes the lymph pressure gradient?

Process of inspiration.

43

What increases the flow of lymph?

Skeletal muscle contraction

44

What is the location of the spleen?

Behind the fundus of the stomach and just above the left kidney.

45

What are the functions of the spleen?

Defense, tissue repair, hematopoietic, red blood cell and platelet destruction, blood reservoir.

46

What does the spleen consist of?

Red and white pulp. White pulp is clusters of lymphocytes. Red pulp is a network of fine reticular fibers submerged in blood.

47

What would happen if spleen was ruptured?

Patient would have extremely low blood pressure and internal bleeding would present.

48

What is the primary organ of the lymphatic system?

Thymus

49

What happens to the thymus as we get older?

Turns to adipose tissue

50

Where is the thymus gland located?

The mediastinum

51

What purpose does the thymus have in youth?

T-cells mature and differentiate here.

52

What hormones does the thymus produce?

Thymosin, thymulin, thymopoietin, thymocyte humoral factor.

53

What line of defenses are non-specific immunity?

First and Second line of defenses

54

What does the first line of defense include?

Mechanical and chemical barriers

55

What are the inflammation mediators?

Histamine, kin is, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, interleukins, and related compounds

56

What are chemotactic factors?

Substances that attract white blood cells to area of injury in a process called chemotaxis

57

What is the most numerous type of phagocyte?

Neutrophil

58

What is non-specific immunity?

Innate: in place before a person is exposed to a particular harmful particle or condition.

59

What is specific immunity?

Adaptive: part of the third line of defense consisting of lymphocytes: B cells and T cells.
Targets only specific harmful particles

60

What are the major types of interferon?

Leukocytes, immune, fibroblast

61

What is phagocytosis?

Ingestion and destruction of microorganisms or other small particles

62

What can phagocytes be?

Macrophages, B cells, or dendritic cells

63

What type of defense is phagocytosis?

Innate defense but also plays a role in adaptive immunity

64

What does interferon inhibit?

Spread of viruses

65

What type of cells are involved in non-specific immunity?

Epithelial barrier cells, phagocytic cells (neutrophils and macrophages), and natural killer cells

66

What chemicals are used as a chemical barrier to pathogens?

Lysosomes, hydrochloric acid in stomach, sebum, mucus, enzymes

67

What are the characteristics of inflammation?

Redness, swelling, heat and pain

68

What is fever?

A manifestation of body-wide response

69

What do we call the ability of our immune system to attack abnormal or foreign cells but spare our own normal cells?

Self-tolerance

70

Adaptive immunity is also called what?

Specific immunity

71

B cell mechanisms are classified as what?

Antibody mediated immunity

72

Macromolecules induce the immune system to make certain responses called what?

Antigens

73

What are memory T cells?

They stay in the bone marrow until needed later to produce more effector T cells and and memory T cells

74

What are effector T cells?

Go to the site where the antigen entered, bond to antigens, and begin their attack

75

Antibody that naive b bells synthesize and insert into their own plasma membranes and predominant class produced after initial contact with an antigen:

IgM

76

Makes up 75% of antibodies in the blood and predominant antibody of the secondary antibody response:

IgG

77

Major class of anitbody in the mucous membranes, saliva, and tears:

IgA

78

Small amount and produces harmful effects such as allergies:

IgE

79

Small amount in blood and precise function unknown

IgD

80

What do we call a DNA molecule?

DNA

81

What is the principle of independent assortment?

Two members of a pair of homologous chromosomes separate, and the maternal and paternal chromosomes get mixed up and redistributed independently.

82

What is the process of genes from one location crossing to the same location on a matching chromosome?

Crossing over

83

What are the characteristics of albinism?

Recessive trait; produces abnormalities only in those with 2 recessive genes

84

The genotype of XX would be:

Female

85

The genotype of XY would be:

Male

86

How is hair color determined?

By the various amounts of melanin deposited in the cells: eumelanin in the cortex can produce many shades of blonde and brunette hair, phenomena in gives reddish tint, and white hair has no pigment

87

What does the sickle cell trait do?

Protects against malaria

88

What are the characteristics of Klinefelter’s?

XXY; long legs, enlarged breasts, low intelligence, small testes, sterility, and chronic pulmonary disease; raised as males

89

What are the characteristics of Turner’s?

XXO; occurs in females with a single X chromosome. Characterized by failure of ovaries and other organs to mature, sterility, cardiovascular defects, dwarfism, webbed neck, and learning disorders; raised as female

90

What are the characteristics of Down syndrome?

Trisomy 21; triplet of chromosome 21 rather than a pair; characterized by mental retardation and multiple defects

91

What are the characteristics of color blindness?

Recessive X-linked genes, almost always male

92

A female can inherit an X-linked recessive trait if her father is what?

A carrier