Chapters 39, 40, 41 Flashcards Preview

DHG 130 Study Guides > Chapters 39, 40, 41 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapters 39, 40, 41 Deck (73):
1

Adaptation

relationship between the working end of an instrument and the tooth surface being treated

2

Angulation

the angle formed by the working end of an instrument with the surface to which the instrument is applied for treatment

3

Blade

working end of an instrument with special design for a particular clinical treatment

4

Curet

a curved, rounded dental instrument utilized for scaling, root planing, and gingival curettage

5

Area-specific curet

a specialized instrument designed with specific angles in the shank for adaptation to certain group of tooth structures

6

Universal curet

A curet designed for use on any tooth surface where the adaptation, angulation, and other principles of instrumentation can be correctly and effectively accomplished

7

Curettage

Removal of the inflamed soft tissue lining of a pocket wall

8

Dominant hand

the hand generally used for performing tasks such as writing and holding instruments for scaling

9

Finger rest

For an intraoral rest, the place on a tooth or teeth where the third or ring finger of the hand holdng the instrument is placed to provide stabilization and control during activation of the instrument

10

Fulcrum

the support upon which a lever rests while force intended to produce motion is exerted

11

Indirect vision

use of a dental mouth mirror to view the area of instrumentation. Indirect lighting is provided by the mirror

12

Instrumentation zone

section of the tooth where treatment is indicated and instrumentation is performed

13

Lateral pressure

the minimal pressure that is required of an instrument against the tooth to accomplish the objective of the assessment or treatment

14

Offset blade

the blade of an area-specific Gracey curet in which the lower shank is at 70 degrees angle to the face of the blade; contrasts with a universal curet blade, which is at a 90 degree angle with the lower shank

15

Scaler

instrument designed for initial removal of calculus, prior to finishing with a curet

16

Scaling

instrumentation of a tooth surface to remove calculus and biofilm

17

Shank

the part of an instrument between the handle and the working end

18

Lower or terminal shank

part of the shank next to the blade

19

Stroke

a single unbroken movement made by an instrument against a tooth surface during an examination or treatment procedure to accomplish a particular objective the motion made for activation of an instrument

20

Arkansas stone

fine-grained sharpening stone quarried from natural mineral deposits

21

Burnish

to smooth and polish; an effect that can result when a dull scaler or curet is passed over tenacious calculus in an attempt to remove the deposit

22

Cutting edge

the fine line formed where the face and lateral surfaces of a scaler or curet meet when the instrument is sharp; when the instrument is dull, the line has thickness and may even reflect light

23

Hone

A sharpening stone

24

Honing

Act of sharpening

25

Testing stick

plastic 1/4 inch rod, 3 inches long, used to test the sharpness of a scaler or curet

26

Antibiotic

A form of antimicrobial agent produced by or obtained from microorganisms that can kill other microorganisms or inhibit their growth; may be specific for certain organisms or may cover a broad spectrum

27

Antimicrobial therapy

use of specific chemical or pharmaceutical agents for the control or destruction of microorganisms, either systemically or at specific sites

28

Attachement

with reference to the clinical attachment level, which is the position of the periodontal attached tissue at the base of the sulcus or pocket as measured from a fixed point

29

New attachment

the union of connective tissue or epithelium with a root surface that has been deprived of its original attachment apparatus; the new attachment may be epithelial adhesion and/or connective tissue adaptation or attachment and it may include new cementum

30

Reattachment

the reunion of epithelial and connective tissues with root surfaces and bone occurs after an incision or injury

31

Bacteremia

Prescence of bacteria in the blood

32

Bioabsorbable

available for absorption by the body

33

Biodegradable

susceptible of degradation by biological processes, as by bacterial or other enzymatic action

34

Cannula

tubular instrument placed in a cavity to introduce or withdraw fluid

35

Chemotherapy

treatment by means of chemical or pharmaceutical agents

36

Controlled release

local delivery of a chemotherapeutic agent to a site-specific area; may be a patch worn on the skin or a polymeric fiber, such as that used to deliver an agent to a peridontal pocket

37

Endoscopy

a minimally invasive diagnostic procedure used in medicine to examine inaccessible tissues by inserting a fiber-optic tube into the body

38

Endotoxin

LPS complex found in the cell wall of many gram-negative microorganisms; contained superficially within periodontally involved cementum

39

Furcation

anatomic area between the roots of a multirooted tooth

40

Furcation invasion

pathologic resorption of bone within a furcation

41

Instrumentation zone

area on tooth where instrumentation is confined area where calculus and altered cementum are lovated and treatment is required

42

Infection

invasion and multiplication of microorganisms in body tissues

43

Endogenous infection

caused by microorganisms that are part of the normal microbiota of the skin, nose, mouth, and intestinal and urogenital tracts

44

Exogenous infection

caused by organisms acquired from outside the oral cavity or the host

45

Opportunistic infection

occurs in a systemically or locally impaired host; opportunistic pathogens may not be highly virulent, but they can cause disease when the host denfense is altered

46

Nonsurgical perodontal therapy

dental biofilm removal and control, supragingival and subgingival scaling, root planing, and adjunctive treatments such as the use of chemotherapy; the basic objectives are to restore periodontal health; arrest or slow the progression of early periodontal disease; or more advanced disease, to prepare the tissues for more complex periodontal therapy

47

Root planing

a definitive treatment procedure designed to remove altered cementum or surface dentin that is rough, impregnanted with calculus or contaminated with toxins or microorganisms. Also termed debridement or root preparation

48

Refractory

not responding to usual treatment

49

What instruments are used for examinations?

Probe, explorer

50

What instruments are used for treatments?

Curets and scalers

51

What is the working end?

The part used to carry out the purpose and function of the instrument

52

What is the working end of a scaler and curet?

Blade

53

What are the causes of carpal tunnel?

Decisions of wrist from neutral (bent wrist), pinch grasp with insufficient rest and other inappropriate work habits

54

What are the main objectives of sharpening?

Preservation of the original shape while restoring a sharp cutting edge

55

How can you tell if your instrument is dull?

The dull cutting edge presents as a rounded, shiny surface that reflects light
When using the plastic testing stick, the dull cutting edge does not catch without undue pressure and slides easily over the surface of the stick

56

Perio debridement includes which type of treatment?

Removal of plaque, calculus, endotoxins, and other bacterial products, root planing to remove residual calculus and smoother tooth surface, irrigation using an anti microbial agent, sustained release antibiotic or antimicrobial agent particularly for refractory infections, removal of iatrogenic biofilm retainers, analysis and correction of occlusal irregularities

57

What are the outcomes of NSP/clinical endpoints?

Bleeding on probing eliminated, probing depths reduced, attachment levels same or improved, inflammation is resolved, gingival appearance : size is reduced, color normal
Subgingival microflora is lowered/delay in repopulation
Dental biofilm control record shows improvement in scores approaching 100% biofilm free
Tooth surface is smooth, no biofilm retentive irregularities
Quality of life factors= oral comfort with freedom from pain

58

Water spray/ tip oscillation does what in ultrasonic scaling?

Water keeps the tip cool
Oscillation of tip - turbulence disruptive effect

59

Sequence of appointment for NSP 1

By quadrants with or without anesthesia at 1 week intervals

60

Sequence of appointment for NSP 2

Two quads of the same side may be completed in one appointment

61

Sequence of appointments for NSP 3

Examine quads previously treated for evidence of healing

62

Sequence of appointments for NSP 4

Calculus left can be removed by remedial scaling procedures

63

Sequence of appointments for NSP 5

At least 2 weeks after scaling, healing of the tissue is to be expected to be well under way. Probe again

64

All about arestin (minocyclin)

Sustained release: 14 days
Contraindications: tetracycline sensitivity and pregnant or nursing

65

All about Atridox (Doxycycline)

Liquid comes in syringe
Solidifies on contact
Benefits: reduced probing depths, attachment gained, destruction of pathogenic bacteria
Can block the flow of sulcus fluid and create an absess

66

All about perio chip (chx chip)

Piece you put in the pocket
No potential for bacterial resistance

67

Mode of action for magnetostrictive scalers

Uses stacks of metal strips in the hand piece
Vibrations in the top create a magnetic field
Tip moves in an elliptical pattern: all surfaces of the tip are active
Frequency: 18000-45000 cycles per sec.

68

Mode of action for piezoelectric scalers

Ceramic rod in the hand piece
Activated by dimensional changes in quartz housed in hand piece
Tip moves in linear pattern: forward and backward so only lateral surfaces are active
Adjustment at every line angle to maintain correct adaptation
25000-50000 cps

69

What does he o-ring do?

Seals the water and holds the tip in

70

Face of blade/lower shank relation on a universal curet

Perpendicular (at 90 degree angle) to the lower shank

71

Face of blade/lower shank relation on a Gracey curet (area specific)

“Offset” (at an angle approx. 70 degrees) in relation to the lower shank

72

What are the objectives of a finger rest?

Stability
Unit control
Prevention of injury
Comfort for pt
Control of length stroke

73

What are endotoxins?

LPS (lipopolysaccharides) derives from cell wall of gram negative microorganisms
Are toxic to tissue
Cause inflammation and destruction to the periodontal attachment
Embedded in the cemental surface and superficial biofilm and can be removed readily